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Yakovlev Yak-9 (Frank)

Single-Seat, Single-Engine Fighter / Fighter-Bomber Aircraft

Yakovlev Yak-9 (Frank)

Single-Seat, Single-Engine Fighter / Fighter-Bomber Aircraft


The Soviet Yakovlev Yak-9 fighter was developed from an experimental version of the earlier Yak-7 product.
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ORIGIN: Soviet Union
YEAR: 1943
STATUS: Retired, Out-of-Service
MANUFACTURER(S): Yakovlev OKB - Soviet Union
OPERATORS: Albania; Bulgaria; China; France; Hungary; Mongolia; North Korea; Poland; Soviet Union; Yugoslavia

Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Yakovlev Yak-9U (Frank) model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.
LENGTH: 28.05 feet (8.55 meters)
WIDTH: 32.05 feet (9.77 meters)
HEIGHT: 9.71 feet (2.96 meters)
WEIGHT (EMPTY): 5,988 pounds (2,716 kilograms)
WEIGHT (MTOW): 6,830 pounds (3,098 kilograms)
ENGINE: 1 x Klimov VK-107A inline piston engine developing 1,650 horsepower driving a three-bladed propeller unit at the nose.
SPEED (MAX): 434 miles-per-hour (698 kilometers-per-hour; 377 knots)
RANGE: 541 miles (870 kilometers; 470 nautical miles)
CEILING: 39,042 feet (11,900 meters; 7.39 miles)
RATE-OF-CLIMB: 4,920 feet-per-minute (1,500 meters-per-minute)

1 x 20mm ShVAK cannon firing through propeller hub.
1 x 12.7mm UBS machine gun

OPTIONAL (Model Dependent):
2 x 220lb bombs
4 x 50kg FAB-50 bombs
2 x 12.7mm UBS machine gun in place of 1 x 12.7mm fitting.
1 x 23mm VYa cannon
1 x 23mm NS-23 cannon
1 x 37mm NS-37 cannon
1 x 45mm NS-45 cannon
2 x 20mm Berezin B-20 cannons
Graphical image of an aircraft medium machine gun
Graphical image of an aircraft heavy machine gun
Graphical image of an aircrat automatic cannon
Graphical image of an aircraft conventional drop bomb munition

Series Model Variants
• Yak-7DI - Initial Development Model Designation based on the Yak-7 production fighter.
• Yak-9 - Base Production Model Designation; fitted with 1,300hp Klimov VK-105PF-1 OR 1,360hp VK-105PF-3 powerplants; 1 or 2 12.7mm machine guns with 1 x 20mm cannon.
• Yak-9B - High-Speed Fighter-Bomber Variant; featured capability to carry an internal and external combined bomb load of up to 1,323lbs.
• Yak-9D - Long-Range Variant; fitted with VK-105PF-3 engine; increased fuel capacity.
• Yak-9DD - Extreme Long-Range Model fitted with drop tanks; based on Yak-9D model.
• Yak-9K - Anti-Tank Version with 45mm cannon; "heavy" model.
• Yak-9M - Revised armament; cockpit position slightly moved.
• Yak-9MPVO - Night-fighter Model; Klimov VK-105 PF2 engine of 1,240 horsepower; RPK-10 radio compass; searchlight.
• Yak-9P - Interceptor produced in post-war years; based on Yak-9U; all-metal wing assemblies; fitted with Klimov 107A inline piston engine generating 1,650hp; 2 x 20mm ShVAK cannons.
• Yak-9PD - High-Altitude Interceptor; fitted with Klimov M-105 PD engine to counter Junkers Ju 86R reconnaissance aircraft of the German Luftwaffe; later upgraded to water-injected Klimov M-106 PV engine.
• Yak-9R - Reconnaissance Variant
• Yak-9S - Based on Yak-9M; fitted with Klimov VK-105 PF engine; 1 x 23mm Nudelman-Suranov NS-23 cannon and 2 x 20mm Berezin B-20 cannons; new propeller system; never produced.
• Yak-9T - Anti-Tank Model; fitted with 37mm or 45mm cannons.
• Yak-9TD - Fitted with NS-37 cannon; 4 x 110lb FAB-50 bomb compatibility.
• Yak-9TK - 20mm, 23mm, 37mm or 45mm cannon compatible; never produced.
• Yak-9U - Fitted with Klimov VK-107A engine of 1,650 horsepower; 1 x 20mm ShVAK cannon; improvements throughout.
• Yak-9UV - Proposed two-seat trainer; never produced; 1 x 20mm Berezin B-20 cannon.
• Yak-9UT - Fitted with 1 x 37mm Nudelman N-37 cannon and 2 x 20mm Berezin B-20 cannons; production aircraft replaced N-37 with NS-23.
• Yak-9V - Two-Seat Trainer; fitted with Klimov VK-105 PF2 engine; 1 x 20mm ShVAK cannon; based on Yak-9M and Yak-9T models.


Detailing the development and operational history of the Yakovlev Yak-9 (Frank) Single-Seat, Single-Engine Fighter / Fighter-Bomber Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 7/10/2018. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©
In line with other classic wartime fighters of World War 2, the Yakovlev-produced Yak-9 was another excellent piston-engine addition to the family line. Initially conceived from a developmental version of the Yak-7 that featured a combined construction of wood and metal, the Yak-9 was designed about the same time that the Yak-3 aircraft was being drawn up. In the end, the Yak-9 would prove to be a most important Soviet aircraft with the production numbers and variants/subvariants to prove just that.

The Yak-9 was designed by Alexander Sergeevich Yakovlev (Yakovlev OKB) around the powerful series of Klimov engines that would be the nucleus of later Yak-9's in the lineage. The combination 20mm cannon and one (or two) 12.7mm heavy machine guns made it a most powerful adversary with enough offensive punch to counter most anything in the sky. Visibility was solid throughout and the airframe proved to be robust and adaptable to an extent. The airframe was converted into a night fighter version as well as several long-range and "pure" interceptor models while including anti-tank and bomber escort derivatives. The new construction method made for a lighter plane than the Yak-7 and the combat experiences garnered by Soviet pilots in the Yak-7 played a role in the development of the Yak-9. The aircraft entered service in October of 1942 with production running from 1942 to 1946.

Design was conventional with the engine mounted in front of the cockpit, low-monoplane wings with dihedral and a "tail-dragger" style undercarriage. The wings were tapers at both the leading and trailing edges and ended as clipped wing tips sporting some curvature. The engine sat in a forward compartment and powered a three-bladed propeller system. The cockpit was situated just aft of the compartment at about amidships in the airframe and featured a framed canopy with good vision all-around, even to the rear. The fuselage was a streamlined affair and quite clean overall, ending in a conventional empennage capped by a rounded vertical tail fin and sporting applicable horizontal tail surfaces. The main landing gear legs were single-wheeled and held under each wing, retracting towards fuselage centerline. The tail wheel was also single-wheeled and retracted into its own bay under the tail assembly. Standard armament was generally a single 20mm ShVAK cannon with 120 rounds and a 12.7mm UBS heavy machine gun with 200 rounds. This could vary by production variant however.

The Yak-9D model, in particular, was fitted with a Klimov M-105 PF series V-12 liquid-cooled engine developing 1,180 horsepower. Maximum speed was listed at 367 miles per hour while range was an impressive 845 miles. Service ceiling was capped at approximately 30,000 feet while rate-of-climb was measured at about 2,690 feet per minute. Armament was the standard 1 x 20mm cannon with 1 x 12.7mm machine gun.

Yakovlev Yak-9 (Frank) (Cont'd)

Single-Seat, Single-Engine Fighter / Fighter-Bomber Aircraft

Yakovlev Yak-9 (Frank) (Cont'd)

Single-Seat, Single-Engine Fighter / Fighter-Bomber Aircraft

Comparatively, the Yak-9U was fitted with the Klimov VK-107A V-23 liquid-cooled engine developing 1,500 horsepower. Her maximum speed was 417 miles per hour with a range of just 420 miles. Service ceiling was limited to 35,000 feet with a rate-of-climb equaling 3,280 feet per minute. Armament was 1 x 20mm ShVAK cannon with 120 rounds of ammunition as well as 2 x 12.7mm UBS machine guns with 170 rounds to a gun.

The aircraft's baptism of fire came in the Battle of Stalingrad. Actions would also include it in Smolensk and wherever else it was needed. The Soviets compared the mount favorably to the highly-touted German Focke-Wulf 190 (models A-3 and A-4) and Messerschmitt Bf 109G fighter series. A Yak-9 was credited with the downing of a Messerschmitt Me 262 jet-powered fighter in March of 1945. Several Yak-9s also made up a Free France fighter squadron beginning in 1943.

With the evolution of the Yak-9 system, the Soviet cause against Germany was improved substantially. The Yak-9 would go on to become one of the premiere Soviet production fighters of the entire war and would essentially have the development of the preceding Yak-7 series to thank for it - becoming the most-produced fighter of the entire Yakovlev fighter line (16,769 examples).

The Yak-9 was known in NATO nomenclature under the codename of "Frank". Despite production having wrapped up, the Yak 9 would still be made available in number for the North Koreans in the Korean War. The post-war environment saw the Soviet Union ship many Yak-9s to allied air fleets abroad in this fashion (most likely Yak-9P models).


Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

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Relative Maximum Speed
Hi: 500mph
Lo: 250mph
This entry's maximum listed speed (434mph).

Graph average of 375 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
Graph showcases the Yakovlev Yak-9U (Frank)'s operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production (16,769)
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units

  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.

Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Supported Roles
Ground Attack
Aerial Tanker
A2A=Air-to-Air; UAV=Unmanned; CAS=Close Support; ASW=Anti-Submarine; AEW=Airborne Early Warning; MEDEVAC=Medical Evac; EW=Electronic Warfare; SAR=Search-Rescue
Commitments / Honors
Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for pioneering aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon representing modern aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur War
Military lapel ribbon for experimental x-plane aircraft
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.

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