Military Factory logo
Icon of F-15 Eagle military combat fighter aircraft
Icon of Abrams Main Battle Tank
Icon of AK-47 assault rifle
Icon of navy warships
Icon of a dollar sign
Icon of military officer saluting

M109 (Paladin)

155mm Self-Propelled Artillery

M109 (Paladin)

155mm Self-Propelled Artillery

OVERVIEW
SPECIFICATIONS
ARMAMENT
VARIANTS
HISTORY
IMAGES
OVERVIEW



Still going strong - the M109 Self-Propelled Artillery system debuted in the Vietnam War and has continued a useful service life in the new millennium.
National Flag Graphic
ORIGIN: United States
YEAR: 1963
MANUFACTURER(S): United Defense LP / GM Cadillac / GM Allison / Chrysler Corp / Bowen-McLaughlin-York - USA
PRODUCTION: 6,200
OPERATORS: Belgium; Brazil; Canada; Chile; Denmark; Germany; Egypt; Ethiopia; Greece; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kuwait; Morocco; Netherlands; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Peru; Portugal; Saudi Arabia; Spain; Switzerland; Taiwan; Thailand; Tunisia; United Arab Emirates; United States; West Germany
National flag of Belgium
BEL
National flag of Brazil
BRA
National flag of Canada
CAN
National flag of Chile
CHI
National flag of Denmark
DEN
National flag of Egypt
EGY
National flag of Ethiopia
ETH
National flag of Germany
GER
National flag of Greece
GRE
National flag of Iran
IRA
National flag of Iraq
IRQ
National flag of Israel
ISR
National flag of Italy
ITA
National flag of Jordan
JRD
National flag of Kuwait
KUW
National flag of Morocco
MOR
National flag of Netherlands
NED
National flag of Norway
NOR
National flag of Oman
OMA
National flag of Pakistan
PAK
National flag of Peru
PER
National flag of Portugal
POR
National flag of Saudi Arabia
SAU
National flag of Spain
SPA
National flag of Switzerland
SWZ
National flag of Taiwan
TWN
National flag of Thailand
THL
National flag of Tunisia
TUN
National flag of United Arab Emirates
UAE
National flag of United States
USA
SPECIFICATIONS



Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the M109 (Paladin) model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.
CREW: 4
NBC PROTECTION: Yes - Optional.
NIGHTVISION: Yes - Passive or Infra-red for Driver.
ANTI-AIRCRAFT: Yes.
ADVERTISEMENTS
LENGTH

0
feet
0
meters
WIDTH

0
feet
0
meters
HEIGHT

0
feet
0
meters
WEIGHT

0
tons
0
kilograms
0
pounds
SPEED (MAX)

0
mph
0
kilometers-per-hour
RANGE

0
miles
0
kilometers
ARMAMENT



1 x 155mm M284 howitzer main gun.
1 x 12.7mm M2 Browning Anti-Aircraft heavy machine gun on turret roof.

Ammunition:
39 x 155mm projectiles.
500 x 12.7mm ammunition.

Resupply via M992 ammunition support vehicle.
VARIANTS



Series Model Variants
• M109 - Initial Production Model
• M109A1 - Longer Main Gun Barrel; Minor Overall Improvements.
• M109A2 - Minor Improvements to M109A1 produciton models.
• M109A3 - New gun mounting hardware and improved RAM-D.
• M109A4 - Improved NBC system; Also covers all updated M109A2 or M109A3 models.
• M109A5 - Updated M109A4 production models.
• M109A6 - Modernized production model; new turret with automatic fire control system and increased armor protection.
• M109A3G (M109G) - German Army export model.
• M109L - Italian Army export model.
• M109AL "Doher" - Israeli Army export model.
• M109L47 - United Arab Emirates and Swiss export model featuring 0.47 caliber main gun tube / barrel.
• M992 FAASV - Field Artillery Ammunition Support Vehicle (ammunition carrier); fixed hull superstructure; sans main gun and original turret component.


HISTORY



Detailing the development and operational history of the M109 (Paladin) 155mm Self-Propelled Artillery.  Entry last updated on 5/2/2019. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com.
The155mm-armed M109 Self-Propelled Howitzer (SPH) was developed concurrently with the 105mm-armed M108 SPH. Both shared the same hull superstructure and turret design and were differentiated primarily by their choice of armament. The M108 was eventually given up in the long run in favor of the more powerful M109 offering to which the M109 has since enjoyed an exceedingly long operational service life thanks, in part, to a strong design and modernization programs. Its endorsement by the U.S. Army and USMC - and its subsequent combat use during the Vietnam War (1955-1975) - led to its wide acceptance by other global land armies aligned with the United States. Production of both the M108 and M109 systems began in 1962 though manufacture of the M108 ended the following year. The M109 continued in production up until 1969 and was manufactured under several related brand labels: General Motors (Cadillac Motor Car Division), General Motors (Allison), and Chrysler Corporation - interestingly all from the same Cleveland facility. Bowen-McLaughlin-York added additional production in 1974 to meet new demand.

Initial M109 production vehicles were fitted with the T255E4 short-barreled main gun which proved effective but led to excessive wear-and-tear due to the propellant charges in use. This prompted a slight revision of the design which introduced a longer-barreled gun tube in the XM185. The existing M109 fleet was then converted to the new M109A1 standard beginning in 1972 with operational levels reached the following year. During 1974, more M109A1s were built to strengthen existing stocks, these by Bowen-McLaughlin-York, and designated M109A1B.

As completed, the M109 was a conventional SPA form by modern standards. It fitted its powerpack at front-right with the driver at front-left in the forward hull. The turret was placed over the rear section of the vehicle with the large main gun fitted into the forward panel. A cupola was afforded to the commander's position to which a 0.50 or 0.30 caliber machine gun could be installed for air/local defense. The vehicle sat atop a track-and-wheel arrangement which included seven double-tired road wheels to a hull side. The drive sprocket was at front with the track idler at rear while no track return rollers were used. A small door at the rear of the hull allowed for crew entry exit as did side panels, roof hatches and a hatch over the driver's compartment. Main guns featured massive muzzle brakes and were clamped to the hull when traveling. Despite the 155mm caliber, there proved little barrel overhang. The operating crew numbered six - driver, commander, two gunners and two loaders. Turret traversal was a full 360-degrees.

After a period of in-the-field use, more revisions were ordered which included a larger turret bustle which accepted more onboard ammunition storage. New gun mounting hardware was also installed and the floatation equipment seen in original production models was dropped. With these changes in place, the U.S. Army adopted the M109A2 standard and 823 x A2 models followed from 1976 into 1985. Existing M109A1 and M109A1B models were all modified to the A2-standard and these became M109A3.




M109 (Paladin) (Cont'd)

155mm Self-Propelled Artillery

M109 (Paladin) (Cont'd)

155mm Self-Propelled Artillery



The next major revision of the M109 line occurred during the middle part of the 1980s prior to the end of the Cold War. As the threat of nuclear war had not subsided, it was thought prudent to provide M109 crews with some form of local protection from Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical (NBC) agents and, thusly, an NBC suite was added to the M109. Existing M109A2 and M109A3 marks then graduated in this fashion to become the M109A4. The upcoming M109A5 introduced the M284 series 155mm main gun which replaced the original's M185 model and a 440 horsepower diesel engine was brought along. Expectedly, maximum range of the gun was increased as was performance of the vehicle. M109A5+ signified M109A5s with updated Fire Control Systems (FCSs) and other more subtle internal changes.

After Operation Desert Storm (1991), the M109A6 "Paladin" entered service in 1992 as a wholly improved M109 mark - which many regard as the ultimate evolution of the series. The A6 model improved armor protection for the crew and systems alike and further increased ammunition stocks aboard. An automatic FCS was introduced which assisted in gun laying and improved accuracy. The NBC suite and crew comfort was further addressed while the gun received additional attention. Unassisted engagement ranges now peaked at around 18.6 miles while Rocket-Assisted Projectiles (RAPs) added additional downrange reach. By this time the crew had been reduced to four from six.

M109s were resupplied in the field with additional ammunition and charges through the M992 vehicle. This development was essentially a turret-less M109 though with a fixed superstructure and three crew. The vehicle typically followed M109s into action and supplied the needed munition types on call, the shells being passed through openings at the rear of the M109.

The M109 proved an export success on the global stage, one of the most successful armored vehicles of the Cold War and one of the best American SPG/SPG systems since the close of World War 2 (1939-1945). Operators ranged from Canada to South America, Europe and the Middle East. Chances are those nations fielding an SPG during the Cold War managed a stock of either the Soviet equivalent machine or the American-made M109. Many remain in service today - such has been the effectiveness of the vehicle series in combat.

Combat service has taken the M109 through the Vietnam campaign, the Yom Kippur War (1973), the Iran-Iraq War (), the Gulf War (1991), the recent U.S.-led Iraq campaign (2003-2011), and the 2006 Lebanon War. The British Army relied on the M109 for a time until succeeding these units with the locally-designed and developed AS-90 system appearing in 1993.

At one point, the XM2001 "Crusader", detailed elsewhere on this site, was intended as the American successor for the M109 line. This promising program was eventually terminated in May of 1992 - signaling an extended service life for existing M109 vehicles.




Media







Site Disclaimer  |  Privacy Policy  |  Cookies  |  Site Map

www.MilitaryFactory.com. Site content ©2003- MilitaryFactory.com, All Rights Reserved.

The "Military Factory" name and MilitaryFactory.com logo are registered ® U.S. trademarks protected by all applicable domestic and international intellectual property laws. All written content, illustrations, and photography are unique to this website (unless where indicated) and not for reuse/reproduction in any form. Material presented throughout this website is for historical and entertainment value only and should not to be construed as usable for hardware restoration, maintenance, or general operation. We do not sell any of the items showcased on this site. Please direct all other inquiries to militaryfactory AT gmail.com.

Part of a network of sites that includes GlobalFirepower, a data-driven property used in ranking the top military powers of the world.


Facebook Logo YouTube Logo