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Short Stirling


Four-Engine Strategic Heavy Bomber Aircraft


United Kingdom | 1941



"The Short Stirling four-engined bomber made up a large contingent of RAF heavy bombing capability at one point during World War 2."



Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 06/04/2018 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site; No A.I. was used in the generation of this content.
Flag of Image from the Public Domain.
Firepower
Performance
Survivability
Versatility
Impact
The Short Sterling formed the backbone of British RAF heavy bomber groups beginning in January of 1941 and forged an operational existence from then through to the end of World War 2 in 1945, where it proved an obsolescent design and relegated to transport sorties. Designed from the outset as a four-engined heavy bomber (most RAF four engine bombers began life as twin-engined designs), the Stirling would reach its stride in the early 1940's through the Mk III variant as this proved the definitive principle bomber. Short Stirlings were fielded across twenty-eight total RAF bomber squadrons and certainly left their mark on the war despite the arrival of more famous mounts such as the Avro Lancaster.

The Short Stirling was born from an RAF requirement set forth in 1936 calling for a heavy four-engined bomber with suitable range and a lethal payload carrying capability. By 1938, a half-sized prototype was flying with a full-size prototype being delivered for testing in 1939. The rather conventional design made use of a forward-set flight deck, centralized internal bomb bay and tricycle undercarriage. Wings were straight and low-mounted with each assembly managing two leading edge engine nacelles. Each engine powered a three-bladed propeller. The undercarriage was retractable with the main legs left rather tall giving the Stirling bomber a rather noticeable nose-up profile when landed. The tail section was traditional, showcasing a single vertical tail fin flanked by two low-mounted horizontal planes. Typical crew accommodations included seven personnel made up of two pilots, a navigator/bombardier, nose gunner, flight engineer and two dedicated gunners. Defensive armament was 8 x 7.7mm (0.303 caliber) machine guns - 2 x in a powered nose turret, 2 x in a powered dorsal turret and 4 x in a powered tail turret. Offensively, the bomber could carry upwards of 14,000lb of internal stores.

By 1940, the Stirling was in serial production and entered operational service the following year. In its original Mk I form, the Stirling was powered by 4 x Bristol Hercules XI radial piston engines and it would be this mark that would be available during the critical war years - holding enough range to reach the German capital of Berlin if required. The Mk II model followed in prototype form and was fitted with 4x Wright Cyclone engines - though never produced. As such, the definitive Mk III followed with its 4 x Bristol Hercules XVI powerplants and would become the principle bomber variant in the Stirling series. The Mk III series was further fitted with specialized "Pathfinder" equipment, making it useful in airborne-related paratrooper operations or directing follow-up bomber formations to the proper target in low-light.

By 1944, the Stirling had seen its best fighting days. The tide had also begun turning in favor of the Allies with gains across Africa, the Pacific, France, Italy and in the Eastern Front. The Stirling was passed up for more modern offerings and therefore relegated to secondary duties such as glider / transport tug (Mk IV) and used extensively with airborne operations through the remaining years of the war. A dedicated transport model (Mk V) was spawned as the final variant of the Short Sterling.

Beyond the British RAF, the Short Stirling was used by Belgium, Egypt and Germany. In Belgium service, these were post-war mounts used by commercial venture Trans-Air. The Egyptian Air Force procured eight ex-Belgian airframes some time later. German use was limited to recovered examples and operated to a limited extent by the specialist Luftwaffe air group known as "KG 200" ("Kampfgeschwader 200"). KG 200 was disbanded after the war in 1945.

2,383 Short Stirlings were eventually produced, these through Short Brothers, Rochester Short Brothers and Harland and Belfast Austin Motor Company.

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Power & Performance
Those special qualities that separate one aircraft design from another. Performance specifications presented assume optimal operating conditions for the Short Stirling Mk III Four-Engine Strategic Heavy Bomber Aircraft.
4 x Bristol Hercules XVI radial piston engines developing 1,650 horsepower each.
Propulsion
270 mph
435 kph | 235 kts
Max Speed
16,995 ft
5,180 m | 3 miles
Service Ceiling
590 miles
949 km | 512 nm
Operational Range
City-to-City Ranges
Operational range when compared to distances between major cities (in KM).
NYC
 
  LON
LON
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MOS
MOS
 
  TOK
TOK
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Structure
The nose-to-tail, wingtip-to-wingtip physical qualities of the Short Stirling Mk III Four-Engine Strategic Heavy Bomber Aircraft.
7
(MANNED)
Crew
86.9 ft
26.50 m
O/A Length
99.1 ft
(30.20 m)
O/A Width
22.7 ft
(6.93 m)
O/A Height
43,202 lb
(19,596 kg)
Empty Weight
70,085 lb
(31,790 kg)
MTOW
Design Balance
The three qualities reflected below are altitude, speed, and range. The more full the box, the more balanced the design.
RANGE
ALT
SPEED
Armament
Available supported armament and special-mission equipment featured in the design of the Short Stirling Four-Engine Strategic Heavy Bomber Aircraft .
STANDARD:
2 x 7.7mm machine guns in powered nose turret.
2 x 7.7mm machine guns in powered dorsal turret.
4 x 7.7mm machine guns in powered tail turret.

OPTIONAL:
Maximum internally-held bombload of up to 14,000lb.
Variants
Notable series variants as part of the Short Stirling family line.
Mk I - Initial Production Model; powered by Hercules XI radial engines; 756 such models produced.
Mk II - Prototype Variant fitted with Wright Cyclone powerplants; never placed into production.
Mk III - Fitted with Hercules XVI powerplants; 875 produced as such; became main bomber production variant; first Stirling design fitted with twin-gun dorsal turret assembly.
Mk IV - Transport and Glider Tug Model; sans nose and dorsal gun emplacements; 577 such models produced.
Mk V - Transport Model Variant; 160 such models produced.
Operators
Global customers who have evaluated and/or operated the Short Stirling. Nations are displayed by flag, each linked to their respective national aircraft listing.

Total Production: 2,383 Units

Contractor(s): Short Brothers / Belfast Austin Motor Company - UK
National flag of Belgium National flag of Egypt National flag of modern Germany National flag of Nazi Germany National flag of the United Kingdom

[ Belgium; Egypt; Nazi Germany; United Kingdom ]
Relative Max Speed
Hi: 300mph
Lo: 150mph
Aircraft Max Listed Speed (270mph).

Graph Average of 225 MPH.
Era Crossover
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Showcasing Aircraft Era Crossover (if any)
Max Alt Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Production Comparison
2383
36183
44000
Entry compared against Ilyushin IL-2 (military) and Cessna 172 (civilian) total production.
MACH Regime (Sonic)
Sub
Trans
Super
Hyper
HiHyper
ReEntry
RANGES (MPH) Subsonic: <614mph | Transonic: 614-921 | Supersonic: 921-3836 | Hypersonic: 3836-7673 | Hi-Hypersonic: 7673-19180 | Reentry: >19030
Aviation Timeline
EarlyYrs
WWI
Interwar
WWII
ColdWar
Postwar
Modern
Future
1 / 1
Image of the Short Stirling
Image from the Public Domain.

Mission Roles
Some designs are single-minded in their approach while others offer a more versatile solution to airborne requirements.
GROUND ATTACK
Recognition
Some designs stand the test of time while others are doomed to never advance beyond the drawing board; let history be their judge.
Going Further...
The Short Stirling Four-Engine Strategic Heavy Bomber Aircraft appears in the following collections:
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