The Yakovlev Yak-40 (Codling) is a Soviet Cold War-era triple-engine regional passenger airliner. The series was flown, for the first time, on October 21st, 1966 in prototype form and entered service through Aeroflot in September of 1968. The type was produced in 1,011 examples and operate across many Soviet-aligned nations (in both military and civilian market guises) including Afghanistan, Albania, Czechoslovakia, and Ukraine. While production ceased in 1981, the series continues to fly today (2021) - a total of about 130 examples were exported.
Its design is conventional as triple-engine airliners go: the engines are set at the rear along the fuselage sides and dorsal fuselage line, reducing cabin noise to some extent. The mainplanes are mounted low and at about midships though not swept back, featuring slight dihedral (upward angle). The tail unit incorporates the proven T-style plane arrangement which seats the horizontal plane high atop the vertical fin. At the base of the fin is the dorsal engine housing. The cockpit is set at the front of the fuselage in the usual way with crew seating in side-by-side format and a short, sloping nosecone for good vision forwards. Each crewman (pilot and co-pilot) is given a control yoke and foot pedals for redundancy with throttle controls handily centered at the shared console separating the two seats. A tricycle undercarriage is provided for ground running and is completely retractable in the design.
Initial production models were designated simply as Yak-40 while a military conversion variant followed as the Yak-40-25 incorporating the nose of a Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25R and used in the ELINT role. Another military form became the Yak-40 "Akva" which incorporated a probe at the nose assembly and included a bevy of sensors and specialized equipment. The Yak-40 "Fobos" was another military mark with side viewing domes. The Yak-40 "Kalibrovshchik" was a modified ELINT model while the Yak-40L was proposed as a swept-wing form with 2 x Lycoming LF507-1N turbofan engines (in a partnership with Textron and Skorost). The Yak-40 "Liros" became another military offering and outfitted with sensors and specialized equipment. The Yak-40 "Meteo" was another military market form and featured dipole antenna and the military-minded Yak-40REO included IR linescan equipment and a viewing dome at the starboard side of the fuselage. The Yak-40 "Shtorm" military variant was identified through its added external probes and carried additional sensors and equipment.
The Yak-40 M-602 was evolved to become a flying testbed and data collection platform - notable for its M-602 propeller unit installed at the nose cone (this version continues to fly for Russia today). An extended range variant became the Yak-40D "Dal-niy" and the Yak-30EC marked export forms. The Yak-40K was a cargo-hauling conversion variant incorporating a cargo door.
The Yak-40M was a proposed mark with lengthened fuselage to carry up to 40 passengers. The Yak-40P added enlarged engine nacelles. The Yak-40TL was another proposed, modernized model to be powered by 3 x AI-25T turbofan engines. The Yak-40MS was an experimental form sporting 2 x Honeywell TFE731-5 series turbofan engines. The STR-40DT mark identified a proposed version to feature a composite wing.
The original Yak-40 was operated by a standard crew of three that included a flight mechanic. Up to 32 passengers could be carried. Overall length reached 66.9 feet with a wingspan of 82 feet and a total height of 21.3 feet. Empty weight was 20,723lb against an MTOW of 34,172lb. The engine arrangement involved 3 x Ivchenko AI-25 non-afterburning turbofan engines, each delivering around 3,300lb of thrust.
Maximum speed was Mach 0.7 with cruising done around 340 miles-per-hour. Range was out to 1,100 miles and its service ceiling reached 26,000 feet (requiring cabin pressurization). Rate-of-climb was 1,575 feet-per-minute.
The Yakovlev Yak-42 ("Clobber") is a related development of the Yak-40 series, also relying on a triple engine arrangement and featuring many qualities of the original (the notable exception being swept-back wing mainplanes).
(OPERATORS list includes past, present, and future operators when applicable)
Used in roles serving the commercial aviation market, ferrying both passengers and goods over range.
Used in the Very-Important-Person (VIP) passenger transport role, typically with above-average amenities and luxuries as standard.
✓Intelligence-Surveillance-Reconnaissance (ISR), Scout
Surveil ground targets / target areas to assess environmental threat levels, enemy strength, or enemy movement.
✓X-Plane (Developmental, Prototype, Technology Demonstrator)
Aircraft developed for the role of prototyping, technology demonstration, or research / data collection.
Incorporates two or more engines, enhancing survivability and / or performance.
EXTENDED RANGE PERFORMANCE
Capability to travel considerable distances through onboard fuel stores.
Ability to operate over ocean in addition to surviving the special rigors of the maritime environment.
Supports pressurization required at higher operating altitudes for crew survival.
Beyond a pilot, the aircraft takes advantage of additional crew specialized in specific functions aboard the aircraft.
Features partially- or wholly-enclosed crew workspaces.
Features retracting / retractable undercarriage to preserve aerodynamic efficiency.
Design incorporates feature(s) that facilitates loading / unloading of cargo / personnel from the aircraft.
66.8 ft (20.35 m)
82.0 ft (25.00 m)
21.3 ft (6.50 m)
20,723 lb (9,400 kg)
34,172 lb (15,500 kg)
+13,448 lb (+6,100 kg)
(Showcased structural values pertain to the Yakovlev Yak-40 production variant)
monoplane / low-mounted / straight
Design utilizes a single primary wing mainplane; this represent the most popular mainplane arrangement.
Mainplanes are low-mounted along the sides of the fuselage.
The planform involves use of basic, straight mainplane members.
(Structural descriptors pertains to the Yakovlev Yak-40 production variant)
3 x Ivchenko AI-25 non-afterburning turbofan engines developing 3,300lb of thrust each.
Yak-40 ("Codling") - Initial production form.
Yak-40D "Dal-niy" - Extended range model.
Yak-40EC - Export variant.
Yak-40K - Cargo-hauling variant; enlarged freight access door added to fuselage.
Yak-40L - Proposed model with 2 x Lycoming LF507-1N turbofan engines and swept-back wing mainplanes.
Yak-40M - Proposed stretched fuselage model.
Yak-40 M-602 - Flying laboratory and data-collecting platform; propeller unit fitted to nose cone.
Yak-40TL - Proposed modernized form to feature 3 x Lycoming LF507 turbofan engines.
Yak-40V - Export form with 3 x AI-25T turbofan engines.
Yak-40MS - Experimental model with 2 x Honeywell TFE731-5 turbofan engines.
STR-40DT - Proposed variant with composite wing construction.
Yak-40-25 - Military variant for ELINT; MiG-25R nose section and specialized equipment.
Yak-40 "Akva"- Military variant with nose probe, sensors, and specialized onboard equipment.
Yak-40 "Fobos" - Military variant; dorsal viewing domes added to fuselage.
Yak-40 "Kalibrovshchik" - Military ELINT variant.
Yak-40 "Liros" - Military variant; nose probe and added sensors with specialized onboard equipment.
Yak-40 "Meteo" - Military variant with dipole antenna and starboard side observation blister.
Yak-40- "Shtorm" - Military variant with probes and onboard sensor equipment.
Ribbon graphics not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective aerial campaigns / operations / aviation periods.
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