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Harbin Y-12


Twin-Engine Turboprop Utility Aircraft


China | 1985



"The Harbin Y-12 serves as a turboprop utility platform for a plethora of global operators including China and its PLAAF."



Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 04/27/2020 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site; No A.I. was used in the generation of this content.
The Y-12 is a modern, high-winged twin-turboprop-powered utility aircraft designed, developed, and manufactured by the local concern of Harbin Aircraft Industry Group of China. First flown on July 14th, 1982, the aircraft has been in constant production since service entry occurred in 1985. The type serves a myriad of operators on several continents, these customers ranging from Cambodia and Djibouti to Uganda and Zambia (though its primary user remains China). Its versatile design is such that the aircraft can serve at the military, government, and civilian levels.

The high-wing arrangement provides for excellent lift and drag properties, giving the Y-12 equally-excellent short-field / rough-field capabilities. The mainplanes are braced by thick struts emanating from the lower sides of the fuselage. The cockpit carries its crew of two in a side-by-side seating arrangement with good views had over the short nosecone. The fuselage is slab-sided to better serve internal volume and the empennage raises as it tapers to the rear. Rectangular windows run along the sides of the fuselage. The tail unit is completed by a single, clipped vertical fin and low-set horizontal planes. The undercarriage of the Y-12, of three-wheeled design, is fixed for simplicity and ruggedness.

Origins of the Y-12 are based in the earlier Y-11, an aircraft also developed by Harbin, and this product was another twin-engined, high-winged performer of similar form and function (though only about 50 were produced). The goal of the new program was to expound upon the stronger qualities of the earlier Y-11 so improvements were instituted throughout the design. Dimensions increased and all-new mainplane members were forged as the project moved along during the early 1980s. A single prototype was used to prove the Y-12 design sound.

Once approved, the Y-12 entered production with thirty early-form aircraft designated as "Y-12 (I)". These carried a pair of American-Canadian Pratt & Whitney Canada (PWC) PT6A-11 turboprops of 500 horsepower each. More improvements followed (including the introduction of uprated PWC PT6A-27 engines), once in service, to produce the "Y-12 (II)" designation. The series was then officially certified for Chinese airspace in 1985.

The "Y-12 (III)" was in the works with the indigenous WJ-9 turboprop to power it and this mark eventually became the Y-12C in service. The 19-seat "Y-12 (IV)", certified around 1995, became an improved model with increased wingspan and modified wingtips.

The Y-12D serves the Chinese Army in the parachute training role and sports four-bladed propeller units. The Y-12E, certified around 2006, has seating for 18 and is driven by 2 x PWC PT6A-135A engines with four-bladed propellers.

The Y-12F is a heavily-modified variant featuring all-new wing mainplanes, larger fuselage, more powerful engines (PWC PT6A-65B), and a wholly-retractable wheeled undercarriage. Performance of this model is improved over earlier marks. A first-flight of this aircraft was recorded in December of 2010 and the type was certified before the end of 2015. The Y-12G is its proposed cargo-minded variant.

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Power & Performance
Those special qualities that separate one aircraft design from another. Performance specifications presented assume optimal operating conditions for the Harbin Y-12 Twin-Engine Turboprop Utility Aircraft.
2 x Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-27 turboprop engines developing 620 horsepower each and driving four-bladed propeller units.
Propulsion
205 mph
330 kph | 178 kts
Max Speed
22,966 ft
7,000 m | 4 miles
Service Ceiling
839 miles
1,350 km | 729 nm
Operational Range
1,600 ft/min
488 m/min
Rate-of-Climb
City-to-City Ranges
Operational range when compared to distances between major cities (in KM).
NYC
 
  LON
LON
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MOS
MOS
 
  TOK
TOK
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Structure
The nose-to-tail, wingtip-to-wingtip physical qualities of the Harbin Y-12 Twin-Engine Turboprop Utility Aircraft.
2
(MANNED)
Crew
61.8 ft
18.85 m
O/A Length
56.6 ft
(17.25 m)
O/A Width
18.6 ft
(5.68 m)
O/A Height
6,283 lb
(2,850 kg)
Empty Weight
11,684 lb
(5,300 kg)
MTOW
Design Balance
The three qualities reflected below are altitude, speed, and range. The more full the box, the more balanced the design.
RANGE
ALT
SPEED
Variants
Notable series variants as part of the Harbin Y-12 family line.
Y-12 - Base Series Designation
Y-12 (I) - Initial form; fitted with PWC PT6A-11 turboprop engines of 500 horsepower each; serving as prototype and about 30 pre-series/early-series aircraft.
Y-12 (II) - Improved model with uprated PT6A-27 engines offering enhanced performance and capabilities.
Y-12 (III) - Power from WJ-9 turboprop
Y-12 (IV) / Y-12C - Improved III-model with increased wingspan and modified wingtips; 19-seat passenger capacity; WJ-9 turboprops used in Y-12C.
Y-12D - Chinese Army variant used in parachute training; four-bladed propellers.
Y-12E - Powered by PT6A-135A engines; four-bladed propellers.
Y-12F - Extensively modified variant with retractable undercarriage, more powerful engines, larger dimensions, and all-new wings.
Y-12G - Cargo-minded variant of the Y-12F
"Turbo Panda" - Now-abandoned English/Japanese venture; based in the Y-12 (II).
Twin Panda" - Abadoned initiative based in the Y-12 (II).
Operators
Global customers who have evaluated and/or operated the Harbin Y-12. Nations are displayed by flag, each linked to their respective national aircraft listing.

Total Production: 400 Units

Contractor(s): Harbin Aircraft Industry Group - China
National flag of Bangladesh National flag of China National flag of Colombia National flag of Eritrea National flag of Indonesia National flag of Iran National flag of Malaysia National flag of Mongolia National flag of Myanmar National flag of Namibia National flag of Pakistan National flag of Peru National flag of Sri Lanka National flag of Tanzania National flag of Uganda National flag of Zambia

[ Bangladesh; Cambodia; China; Colombia; Costa Rica; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Djibouti; Eritrea; Ghana; Guyana; Indonesia; Iran; Kenya; Kiribati; Malaysia; Mali; Mauritania; Micronesia; Mongolia; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Pakistan; Paraguay; Peru; Republic of the Congo; Seychelles; Sri Lanka; Tanzania; Tonga; Uganda; Zambia ]
Relative Max Speed
Hi: 300mph
Lo: 150mph
Aircraft Max Listed Speed (205mph).

Graph Average of 225 MPH.
Era Crossover
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Showcasing Aircraft Era Crossover (if any)
Max Alt Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Production Comparison
400
36183
44000
Entry compared against Ilyushin IL-2 (military) and Cessna 172 (civilian) total production.
MACH Regime (Sonic)
Sub
Trans
Super
Hyper
HiHyper
ReEntry
RANGES (MPH) Subsonic: <614mph | Transonic: 614-921 | Supersonic: 921-3836 | Hypersonic: 3836-7673 | Hi-Hypersonic: 7673-19180 | Reentry: >19030
Aviation Timeline
EarlyYrs
WWI
Interwar
WWII
ColdWar
Postwar
Modern
Future
1 / 1
Image of the Harbin Y-12
Image from the Chinese Ministry of Defense.

Mission Roles
Some designs are single-minded in their approach while others offer a more versatile solution to airborne requirements.
TRANSPORT
Recognition
Some designs stand the test of time while others are doomed to never advance beyond the drawing board; let history be their judge.
Going Further...
The Harbin Y-12 Twin-Engine Turboprop Utility Aircraft appears in the following collections:
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