French aeronautical engineer Marcel Riffard, an employee of the Caudron concern, designed a new twin-engine light aircraft for the company in the early-1930s that became known as the Caudron C.440 "Goeland". First-flown in 1934, the six-seat, twin-engined, monoplane-winged light utility platform was sold to both private carriers and, later, the French Air Force and French Navy (among others) - seeing service with the latter two during World War 2 (1939-1945). Before the end of its production run, some 1,702 examples were be produced. The type was also pressed into service during the "Miracle of Dunkirk" in 1940.
The Goeland was a conventionally-arranged aircraft with a low-set monoplane wing fitted ahead of midships. The cockpit sat over and behind a short nose assembly. A tail-dragger undercarriage was featured for ground-running. The fuselage tapered to the empennage to which a single, curved vertical stabilizer was fitted. The horizontal planes at the tail were mounted low. The crew numbered two and dimensions included a length of 44.10 feet, a wingspan of 57.8 feet and a height of 11.1 feet. Empty weight was 5,055lb with a Maximum Take-Off Weight (MTOW) of 7,715lb. Power was from a pair of Renault 6Q engiens of 220 horsepower each. Performance included a maximum speed of 185 miles per hour, a range out to 620 miles, a service ceiling of 23,000 feet and a rate-of-climb nearing 650 feet-per-minute.
Three prototypes were built to the early C.440 standard and used to prove the design sound. Four C.441 aircraft followed with Renault 6Q-01 engines and slight dihedral of the out wing panels. Counter-rotating propellers were added to the C.444 of which seventeen aircraft were built. The C.445 was similar in form and function but the dihedral seen in the C.441 was increased in this variant - 114 examples followed as did several subvariants. The C.446 "Super Goeland" was seen in just one example. The C.447 was an air ambulance model and 31 were produced to the standard. Seven of the C.448 were manufactured and these carried superchargers at the engines. The C.449 marked the final production form of the Goeland line and numbered 349 examples with various subvariants added to the mix.
Global operators (beyond the French) became Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany (Nazi), Slovakia, Spain and Yugoslavia.
As was the case with many-an-aircraft following the start of World War 2 in September of 1939, the Goeland was requisitioned by the French military services for action in the conflict. These operated until the Fall of France in May-June 1940 and were taken over by the conquering Germans. The Germans used the line in both civilian and military roles while the Slovak Republic commissioned a dozen aircraft (C.445M) during 1942. Following the war, the series entered serial production once more though, at about this time, the Caudron name was absorbed under the SNCA du Nord brand label which made the Goeland a Nord product from then on. Several hundred were built in the post-war period and all operated in civilian market roles.
Belgium; Bulgaria; France; Nazi Germany; Slovakia; Spain; Yugoslavia
(OPERATORS list includes past, present, and future operators when applicable)
✓Special-Mission: MEDical EVACuation (MEDEVAC)
Extraction of wounded combat or civilian elements by way of specialized onboard equipment and available internal volume or external carrying capability.
General transport functionality to move supplies/cargo or personnel (including wounded and VIP) over range.
Used in roles serving the commercial aviation market, ferrying both passengers and goods over range.
Used in the Very-Important-Person (VIP) passenger transport role, typically with above-average amenities and luxuries as standard.
Developed ability to be used as a dedicated trainer for student pilots (typically under the supervision of an instructor).
44.9 ft (13.68 m)
57.7 ft (17.60 m)
11.2 ft (3.40 m)
5,071 lb (2,300 kg)
7,716 lb (3,500 kg)
+2,646 lb (+1,200 kg)
(Showcased structural values pertain to the Caudron C.440M production variant)
2 x Renault 6Q engines developing 220 horsepower each.
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