Aircraft / Aviation Vehicles & Artillery Small Arms Warships & Submarines Military Ranks Military Pay Chart (2024) Special Forces
Aviation / Aerospace

Avro York (Type 685)

Four-Engined Heavy Transport / Airliner Aircraft [ 1944 ]

The Avro York transport of World War 2 held roots in the classic Avro Lancaster heavy bomber of the same conflict.

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 06/18/2018 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.

In February of 1942 the Avro Lancaster four-engined heavy bomber was introduced for service with the Royal Air Force (RAF). Its participation in World War 2 (1939-1945) proved to be ultra-critical to the bombing campaign - and overall success - of the Allied war effort. Over 7,000 were produced and the last was not retired until 1963 by Canadian forces. While the Lancaster was developed from the Avro Manchester, it too served as the basis for several other large aircraft cousins all its own - the Avro Lincoln Heavy Bomber and the Avro York four-engined transports were two of its offspring.

Avro proceeded with the design of a new four-engined transport based on its Lancaster under the "Type 685" designation. To expedite its development, the new aircraft retained the wing sections, tail unit and undercarriage of the original and had an all-new slab-sided fuselage added for improved internal volume. A double-finned rudder arrangement was seated at the extreme aft-end of the aircraft (just as in the Lancaster) and the cockpit flight deck was fitted at the extreme front end of the aircraft with good views over the nose. The operating crew numbered four.

Power stemmed from 4 x Rolls-Royce Merlin 24 series liquid-cooled inline piston engines developing 1,280 horsepower each. Performance specs went on to include a maximum speed of 300 miles per hour, a range out to 3,000 miles, a service ceiling of 23,000 feet and a rate-of-climb of 820 feet-per-minute.

In 1942, the Air Ministry laid out Specification C.1/42 calling for a transport-minded aircraft and this led to interest in the Avro project of which three prototypes were ordered (four were eventually built). LV626 was the first to fly on July 5th, 1942 but, due to the revised aerodynamics of the new aircraft (when compared to the Lancaster), there proved issues with stability and control which led to the adoption of a triple-finned tail unit. Satisfied, the RAF took the transport into service and the series eventually stocked the inventories of over twenty of its squadrons. Several special groups also operated the type and some were even modified to serve in the VIP role. Beyond the RAF, the aircraft was also used by allies in Australia, France and South Africa. Total production reached 259 units (including prototype examples).

Initial military production models were the York C.I of which 208 examples were manufactured by Avro with a single unit being built by Victory Aircraft of Canada. The Canadian company ramped up for larger-scale production but the war ended after just one was completed and parts for a further five were made. The York C.II became a "one-off" prototype fitting 4 x Bristol Hercules XVI air-cooled radial piston engines - this form was not adopted for service.

The York found gainful employment in the civilian market even during the war years - delivered to British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) during February of 1944 for overseas routes. The series endured into the post-war years as well, taking part in the Berlin Airlift (1948-1949) and in airliner and cargo-hauling service ventures. At least forty-four were operated as civilian-market-minded York Mk.Is and these served the nations of Australia, Argentina, Canada, Iran, Lebanon, South Africa and the United Kingdom.

The RAF Museum at Cosford holds an Avro 685 in its collection.©MilitaryFactory.com
Note: The above text is EXCLUSIVE to the site www.MilitaryFactory.com. It is the product of many hours of research and work made possible with the help of contributors, veterans, insiders, and topic specialists. If you happen upon this text anywhere else on the internet or in print, please let us know at MilitaryFactory AT gmail DOT com so that we may take appropriate action against the offender / offending site and continue to protect this original work.


Avro - United Kingdom / Victory Aircraft - Canada
Australia; Argentina; Canada; France; Iran; Lebanon; South Africa; United Kingdom
Operators National flag of Argentina National flag of Australia National flag of Canada National flag of France National flag of Iran National flag of Lebanon National flag of South Africa National flag of the United Kingdom
Service Year
United Kingdom
National Origin
Project Status

General transport functionality to move supplies/cargo or personnel (including wounded and VIP) over range.
Used in roles serving the commercial aviation market, ferrying both passengers and goods over range.
Used in the Very-Important-Person (VIP) passenger transport role, typically with above-average amenities and luxuries as standard.

78.4 ft
(23.90 meters)
102.0 ft
(31.10 meters)
16.4 ft
(5.00 meters)
40,014 lb
(18,150 kilograms)
Empty Weight
66,139 lb
(30,000 kilograms)
Maximum Take-Off Weight
+26,125 lb
(+11,850 kg)
Weight Difference

4 x Rolls-Royce Merlin 24 liquid-cooled engines developing 1,280 horsepower each.
298 mph
(480 kph | 259 knots)
Max Speed
22,999 ft
(7,010 m | 4 miles)
2,983 miles
(4,800 km | 2,592 nm)
820 ft/min
(250 m/min)

MACH Regime (Sonic)
RANGES (MPH) Subsonic: <614mph | Transonic: 614-921 | Supersonic: 921-3836 | Hypersonic: 3836-7673 | Hi-Hypersonic: 7673-19180 | Reentry: >19030


Type 685 - Model Designation; four prototypes completed to standard.
York C.I - Definitive military transport; 208 completed.
York C.II - One-off prototype fitting Bristol Hercules engines.
York Mk.I - Civilian market passenger/cargo hauler; 44 examples completed.

Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for pioneering aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon representing modern aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for Special Forces
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Ukranian-Russian War
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur War
Military lapel ribbon for experimental x-plane aircraft


1 / 1
Image of the Avro York (Type 685)
Image from the Public Domain.

Disclaimer | Privacy Policy | Cookies

2024 Military Pay Chart Military Ranks DoD Dictionary Conversion Calculators Military Alphabet Code Military Map Symbols

The "Military Factory" name and MilitaryFactory.com logo are registered ® U.S. trademarks protected by all applicable domestic and international intellectual property laws. All written content, illustrations, and photography are unique to this website (unless where indicated) and not for reuse/reproduction in any form. Material presented throughout this website is for historical and entertainment value only and should not to be construed as usable for hardware restoration, maintenance, or general operation. We do not sell any of the items showcased on this site. Please direct all other inquiries to militaryfactory AT gmail.com. No A.I. was used in the generation of this content; site is 100% curated by humans.

Part of a network of sites that includes GlobalFirepower, a data-driven property used in ranking the top military powers of the world, WDMMA.org (World Directory of Modern Military Aircraft), WDMMW.org (World Directory of Modern Military Warships), SR71blackbird.org, detailing the history of the world's most iconic spyplane, and MilitaryRibbons.info, cataloguing military medals and ribbons. Special Interest: RailRoad Junction, the locomotive encyclopedia.

©2023 www.MilitaryFactory.com • All Rights Reserved • Content ©2003-2023 (20yrs)