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North American X-10

Unmanned Cruise Missile Technology Demonstrator Aircraft

North American X-10

Unmanned Cruise Missile Technology Demonstrator Aircraft

OVERVIEW
SPECIFICATIONS
ARMAMENT
VARIANTS
HISTORY
MEDIA
OVERVIEW



At the time of its development, the unmanned North American X-10 was the fastest turbojet-powered aircraft ever flown - only one survived testing.
National Flag Graphic
ORIGIN: United States
YEAR: 1953
MANUFACTURER(S): North American Aviation - USA
PRODUCTION: 13
OPERATORS: United States (retired)
SPECIFICATIONS



Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the North American X-10 model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.
CREW: 1
LENGTH: 66.11 feet (20.15 meters)
WIDTH: 28.18 feet (8.59 meters)
HEIGHT: 14.44 feet (4.4 meters)
WEIGHT (EMPTY): 25,801 pounds (11,703 kilograms)
WEIGHT (MTOW): 42,300 pounds (19,187 kilograms)
ENGINE: 2 x Westinghouse XJ40-WE-1 turbojet engines developing 10,900 lb of thrust each.
SPEED (MAX): 1,299 miles-per-hour (2090 kilometers-per-hour; 1,129 knots)
RANGE: 818 miles (1,316 kilometers; 711 nautical miles)
CEILING: 45,013 feet (13,720 meters; 8.53 miles)
RATE-OF-CLIMB: 5,224 feet-per-minute (1,592 meters-per-minute)




ARMAMENT



None.
VARIANTS



Series Model Variants
• X-10 - Base Series Designation; thirteen examples completed, only one surviving the test regime.


HISTORY



Detailing the development and operational history of the North American X-10 Unmanned Cruise Missile Technology Demonstrator Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 8/4/2016. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com.
North American constructed thirteen of its experimental X-10 aircraft for the United States Air Force (USAF). The product was intended to test out various functions of unmanned flight as it related to the upcoming SM-64 "Navaho" nuclear-capable cruise missile series. A first-flight was had on October 14th, 1953 and the series recorded speeds in excess of Mach 2.0 at altitudes nearing 50,000 feet. However, of the thirteen examples completed, only one aircraft survived - this sole unit on display today at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, Ohio.

The X-10 was given a basic aerodynamically-refined shape, mimicking that of a missile with a very slender body, pointed nosecone assembly and twin-finned tail unit. Power was from a pair of Westinghouse XJ40-WE-1 turbojet engines providing 10,900 lb of thrust each, these aspirated through semi-circular intakes along the fuselage sides. Structurally the aircraft exhibited a length of 77 feet, a wingspan of 28.1 feet and a height of 14.4 feet. Empty weight was 25,800lb against a MTOW of 42,300lb. The X-10 was fitted with a complete, retractable wheeled undercarriage configuration. Canards were fitted at the nose and were all-moving surface planes while the wing mainplanes were delta in their general shape. The tail fins were slight cranked outwards. An early-form computer-based processing system provided the necessary corrections to the inherently unstable design during flight.

The X-10 was known under the "RTV-A-5" designation to North American and saw initial design work begin in 1951. For May of 1953, the reusable air vehicle was handed over to the USAF at Edwards AFB which led to its first flight in October of that year. The X-10 quickly proved itself a sleek and fast aircraft, the fastest to be powered by turbojets at the time, and at least five X-10 examples were used in the test regime at Edwards AFB (four were lost during this phase). The program was then moved to the clear skies over Cape Canaveral, Florida where six more vehicles joined the project (with N-6 INS equipment now in place). These managed to push the program limits all the more but, again, suffered from accidents - two were lost on landing attempts. Three were deliberately crashed in dive testing.

From 1958 on, the remaining X-10 units were used in testing the tracking and engagement capabilities of the Boeing CIM-10 "BOMARC" supersonic long-range Surface-to-Air Missile (SAM). However, none were successful in this venture as two were, again, lost in landing accidents and a third expended over the Atlantic when trouble arose in flight.

During its time in the air, the X-10 managed a recorded maximum speed of 1,300 miles per hour with a service ceiling of 45,000 feet. Its rate-of-climb was 5,224 feet-per-minute. Despite the many losses incurred by the program throughout its life, the data collected proved instrumental in design of future unmanned and manned concepts - particularly fighter design where today digitally-controlled Fly-by-Wire (FBW) systems are commonplace for inherently unstable designs.




MEDIA









Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

Image of collection of graph types

Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 1300mph
Lo: 650mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (1,299mph).

    Graph average of 975 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
NYC
 
  LDN
LDN
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MSK
MSK
 
  TKY
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  SYD
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  LAX
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  NYC
Graph showcases the North American X-10's operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
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Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
13
13

  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Supported Roles
A2A
Interception
UAV
Ground Attack
CAS
Training
ASW
Anti-Ship
AEW
MEDEVAC
EW
Maritime/Navy
SAR
Aerial Tanker
Utility/Transport
VIP
Passenger
Business
Recon
SPECOPS
X-Plane/Development
A2A=Air-to-Air; UAV=Unmanned; CAS=Close Support; ASW=Anti-Submarine; AEW=Airborne Early Warning; MEDEVAC=Medical Evac; EW=Electronic Warfare; SAR=Search-Rescue
Commitments / Honors
Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
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Military lapel ribbon for pioneering aircraft
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Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon representing modern aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur War
Military lapel ribbon for experimental x-plane aircraft
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.