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Piper L-4 Grasshopper

Light Observation Aircraft

Piper L-4 Grasshopper

Light Observation Aircraft

OVERVIEW
SPECIFICATIONS
ARMAMENT
VARIANTS
HISTORY
MEDIA
OVERVIEW



The exemplary Piper-produced J-3 Cub series of light observation aircraft - which includes the L-4 Grasshopper - has been flying since the 1940s.
National Flag Graphic
ORIGIN: United States
YEAR: 1941
STATUS: Retired, Out-of-Service
MANUFACTURER(S): Piper Aircraft Corporation - USA
PRODUCTION: 5,500
OPERATORS: Brazil; Paraguay; South Korea; Thailand; United Kingdom; United States
SPECIFICATIONS



Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Piper L-4 Grasshopper model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.
CREW: 1
LENGTH: 22.01 feet (6.71 meters)
WIDTH: 35.24 feet (10.74 meters)
HEIGHT: 6.66 feet (2.03 meters)
WEIGHT (EMPTY): 730 pounds (331 kilograms)
WEIGHT (MTOW): 1,219 pounds (553 kilograms)
ENGINE: 1 x Continental O-170-3 flat-four piston engine developing 65 horsepower.
SPEED (MAX): 85 miles-per-hour (137 kilometers-per-hour; 74 knots)
RANGE: 190 miles (306 kilometers; 165 nautical miles)
CEILING: 9,301 feet (2,835 meters; 1.76 miles)




ARMAMENT



None.
VARIANTS



Series Model Variants
• YO-59 - Artillery Spotting and Liaison variants (Piper Cub Model J-3C-65) procured by the US Army for evaluation; 4 such examples.
• O-59 - Official Production Model Designation assigned to 40 examples based on the YO-59 trials.
• O-59A - Specialized US Army Variant Designation; fitted with Continental O-170-3 engine; later redesignated to L-4 designation.
• L-4 - Redesignated from O-59A designation.
• L-4H
• TG-8 - USAAF Training Glider; dual controls for pilot and passenger/instructor; redesigned front fuselage; sans powerplant; 250 examples produced in the manner.
• XLNP-1 - US Navy Evaluation Designation for the TG-8 training glider; 3 such examples trialled.
• NE-1 - US Navy designation of J3C-65 dual-control models; 230 examples.
• NE-2 - US Navy models similar to the NE-1 with slight equipment changes; 20 examples.
• HE-1 - Piper J-5C Cub models procured for ambulatory service; room for one stretcher; later redesignated to AE-1.
• AE-1 - Redesignated HE-1 models.


HISTORY



Detailing the development and operational history of the Piper L-4 Grasshopper Light Observation Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 8/24/2018. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com.
The Piper L-4 Grasshopper evolved from the successful Piper Cub series that took to the air as early as 1930. By 1941, the US Army was in the market for such a light observation and liaison aircraft with rugged reliability, procured four such examples and evaluated the type as the YO-59, later ordering no fewer than 40 more as the O-59. The series saw a dedicated US Army model emerge as the O-59A (soon to be redesignated as the L-4, to which the "L" identified the aircraft series as "liaison"), a type which offered up improvements to many of the components to make the system "battlefield" ready.

At its core, the L-4 Grasshopper was of a high-wing monoplane design, braced at the fuselage, with seating accommodations for two that could include a pilot and passenger/instructor. The lightweight and rugged reliability of the system endeared it to her crews and the Grasshopper went on to provide decades of service in war and peacetime with several nations. Having been designated as the L-4 by 1942, the system was ordered for evaluation as training gliders and accepted by the USAAF (United States Army Air Forces) as the TG-8. The US Navy took on their own versions of this Grasshopper as the NE-1 and the NE-2. An ambulance version of the Grasshopper existed in later forms as the HE-1, though the "H" in the designation was soon reserved for helicopters alone, leaving the HE-1 now as the AE-1.

The L-4 Grasshopper served armed forces well over the years, concluding production in 1981, though the popularity of the system triggered the reopening of the production lines in 1988. These new line Grasshoppers, appearing with modifications and upgrades, failed to light the fires that were burning in the early years however. Some 5,500 aircraft of this series were said to be produced, though some sources put the number as high as 5,700. In any respect, the Grasshopper series proved vital for the US military in the Second World War and the Korean War.




MEDIA









Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

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Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 100mph
Lo: 50mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (85mph).

    Graph average of 75 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
NYC
 
  LDN
LDN
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MSK
MSK
 
  TKY
TKY
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Graph showcases the Piper L-4 Grasshopper's operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
5500
5500

  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Supported Roles
A2A
Interception
UAV
Ground Attack
CAS
Training
ASW
Anti-Ship
AEW
MEDEVAC
EW
Maritime/Navy
SAR
Aerial Tanker
Utility/Transport
VIP
Passenger
Business
Recon
SPECOPS
X-Plane/Development
A2A=Air-to-Air; UAV=Unmanned; CAS=Close Support; ASW=Anti-Submarine; AEW=Airborne Early Warning; MEDEVAC=Medical Evac; EW=Electronic Warfare; SAR=Search-Rescue