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Douglas DC-8


Medium- / Long-Range Passenger Jet Airliner


Douglas Aircraft Company produced the four-engined DC-8 from 1958 into 1972 to which 556 examples were completed and delivered to operators around the globe.
Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 6/19/2018
Douglas Aircraft Company, founded in 1921 and making itself a household name during World War 2 (1939-1945), was slow to move on the jet airliner passenger market - electing instead to further develop more powerful and efficient prop-driven platforms in the post-war world. This commitment led to consecutive successes within the Douglas "DC" line of aircraft that spanned from the pre-war DC-2 to the post-war DC-7 that went on to cover decades upon decades of flying. The British beat everyone to the finish line by becoming the first to fly a viable commercial jet airliner by way of their de Havilland "Comet" (detailed elsewhere on this site).

The Comet was a technological success for its time but its career was marred by high profile crashes and accidents which, in turn, kept American companies from wholly-embracing jet-powered flight in the civilian market sphere. Boeing then leaped ahead of Douglas to secure a new United States Air Force (USAF) requirement for a jet-powered aerial tanker aircraft, much to the surprise of Douglas who expected multiple contracts and months to develop their proposal for the project as had been the case during the World War 2 period. The Boeing product became the storied KC-135 (detailed elsewhere on this site).

This spurred Douglas to increase its development efforts in the field of large, jet-powered airplanes - something Boeing had much experience with due to their jet-powered bombers developed for the USAF in years prior. This led to the framework of the "DC-8" being laid down by the company with its intent unveiled in mid-1955. Four distinct versions of the same aircraft were planned to cover various routes. With the Pan American purchase of multiple Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8 jet aircraft, the future of air travel forever shifted from prop-driven types to jet-powered types and industry competitors were forced to follow the Pan American lead as a result.

Douglas rolled out its first DC-8 on April 9th, 1958 and flew this specimen for the first time on May 30th of that year. Certification followed in August of 1959 while the product was revised throughout its testing phase. In August of 1961, a controlled dive of a testbed DC-8 managed to break the sound barrier, becoming the first jet-powered airliner in history to do so. Delta Airlines became the launch customer of the DC-8 when the series entered service with the company on September 18th, 1959. From there, the career of the DC-8 grew to span decades of time in the air.

Production of DC-8s ran from 1958 until 1972 to which 556 examples were completed. The high point of the program was reached in 1968 when a total of 102 examples were delivered. However, after this peak, just 85 aircraft arrived in 1969 and this crashed to 33 in 1970. In 1972, just four aircraft were completed as there proved more popular products on the market. The Douglas Aircraft Company brand label existed until 1967 and was evolved to become "McDonnell Douglas" in 1967 following a merger between the two former powerhouses.


Variants of the DC-8 family were plentiful. The Series 10 was fitted with 4 x Pratt & Whitney JT3C-6 turbojet engines of 13,500lb thrust and featuring water injection and ultimately incorporated leading-edge slots and all-new wingtip designs. The Series 20 carried PW JT4A-3 turbojets of 15,800lb thrust each (also with the water injection feature) and this allowed for slightly improved performance (MTOW was increased). Both the Series 10 and Series 20 models were intended for local, domestic flights.

The Series 30 was developed with intercontinental travel in mind. As such, more internal volume was given up for fuel stores within a lengthened fuselage. Engines were 4 x PW JT4-9 series units outputting 16,800lb of thrust each which, again, helped to increase MTOW. The Series 40 was the Series 30 aircraft but with more efficient, cleaner-burning Rolls-Royce "Conway" Model 509 turbofan engines.

Series 50 jets included the DC-8 "Jet Trader" and the EC-24A. The former was a freighter model while the latter was utilized by the United States Navy in the Electronic Warfare (EW) training role. Series 50 aircraft were given short fuselages and were driven by JT3D engines.

The Super 60 Series included the DC-8 Series 61, Series 62, and Series 63 aircraft. Series 61 aircraft were developed for medium-haul markets while the Series 62 platform was a longer-ranged performer featuring a stretched fuselage. The Series 63 was another stretched model with more efficiency built into its structure (modifications taken from the Series 62). These were powered by JT3D-7 engines of 19,000lb thrust.

The Super 70 Series involved the DC-8-71, -72, and -73 variants and built from the DC-8-61, -62, and -63 models, respectively. They were refitted with CFM56-2 series turbofan engines for greater power and performance. Production amounted to about 110 aircraft in the early 1980s.

Historically, operators of the DC-8 series ranged from Austria and Belgium to Venezuela and Zambia - no part of the world, it seems, remained untouched by the presence of the DC-8 family of aircraft. The series did not achieve a flawless record for some 83 airframe losses were reported covering 2,256 lives lost in the process. Due to noise restrictions at many global airports and the sheer cost of maintaining a decades-old aircraft, the DC-8 is a rare sight in the skies today and remains in extremely limited service today (2018).






Specifications



Year:
1959
Status
Active, Limited Service
Crew
3
[ 556 Units ] :
Douglas Aircraft Company - USA
National flag of Austria National flag of Belgium National flag of Brazil National flag of Canada National flag of Central African Republic National flag of Chile National flag of Colombia National flag of Cuba National flag of Democratic Republic of the Congo National flag of Denmark National flag of Finland National flag of France National flag of Gabon National flag of Germany National flag of Ghana National flag of India National flag of Indonesia National flag of Ireland National flag of Italy National flag of Ivory Coast National flag of Jamaica National flag of Japan National flag of Kenya National flag of Liberia National flag of Libya National flag of Luxembourg National flag of Maldives National flag of Mexico National flag of Netherlands National flag of New Zealand National flag of Nigeria National flag of Norway National flag of Oman National flag of Panama National flag of Paraguay National flag of Peru National flag of Philippines National flag of Republic of the Congo National flag of Singapore National flag of South Africa National flag of South Korea National flag of Spain National flag of Sri Lanka National flag of Suriname National flag of Swaziland National flag of Sweden National flag of Switzerland National flag of Thailand National flag of Togo National flag of Turkey National flag of United Arab Emirates National flag of United Kingdom National flag of United States National flag of Uruguay National flag of Venezuela National flag of Zambia Austria; Belgium; Brazil; Canada; Cayman Islands; Central African Republic; Ceylon; Chile; Colombia; Congo Free State; Ivory Coast; Cuba; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Denmark; Finland; France; Gabon; Ghana; West Germany; Iceland; India; Indonesia; Ireland; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Kenya; Liberia; Libya; Luxembourg; Maldives; Mexico; Netherlands; New Zealand; Nigeria; Norway; Oman; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Singapore; South Africa; South Korea; Spain; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Swaziland; Sweden; Switzerland; Thailand; Togo; Turkey; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States; Uruguay; Venezuela; Zambia
- Airborne Early Warning (AEW)
- Transport
- Commercial Market
Length:
150.49 ft (45.87 m)
Width/Span:
142.42 ft (43.41 m)
Height:
43.34 ft (13.21 m)
(Showcased structural dimension values pertain to the Douglas DC-8-32 production model)
Empty Weight:
134,041 lb (60,800 kg)
MTOW:
683,433 lb (310,000 kg)
(Diff: +549,392lb)
(Showcased weight values pertain to the Douglas DC-8-32 production model)
4 x Pratt & Whitney JT4A-9 turbojet engines developing 16,800 lb thrust each.
(Showcased powerplant information pertains to the Douglas DC-8-32 production model)
Maximum Speed:
588 mph (946 kph; 511 kts)
Service Ceiling:
35,000 feet (10,668 m; 6.63 miles)
Maximum Range:
4,604 miles (7,410 km; 4,001 nm)
(Showcased performance values pertain to the Douglas DC-8-32 production model; Compare this aircraft entry against any other in our database)
None.
(Showcased armament details pertain to the Douglas DC-8-32 production model)
DC-8-10
DC-8-11
DC-8-12
DC-8-20
DC-8-31
DC-8-32
DC-8-33
DC-8-41
DC-8-42
DC-8-43
DC-8-51
DC-8-52
DC-8-53
DC-8-55
DC-8F-54
DC-8F-55
DC-8-61
DC-8-62
DC08-63
DC-8-71
DC-8-72
DC-8-73

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