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M114 CRV Command and Reconnaissance Vehicle (1962)

Authored By Martin Foray | Last Updated: 7/12/2014

Poor off-road performance doomed the M114 Armored Personnel Carrier though it did see combat actions in the Vietnam War.

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The M114 Command and Reconnaissance Carrier followed the ubiquitous M113 Armored Personnel Carrier (APC) series into operational service. The M113 of 1960 would go on to see extensive service on a global scale and be featured in the inventories of a multitude of American-friendly nations as a do-all, be-all multi-role platform. The M113 also survived in a variety of useful battlefield forms beyond her initial APC offering and went on to become a dedicated guided-missile launch platform, armored assault vehicle, dedicated command vehicle and smoke screen generator variant to name a few. In contrast to the 80,000 M113 systems built, a little over 600 M114s were ultimately delivered to the US Army.

The M114 was not as lucky as her older sister, a mount who found success in the Vietnam War and essentially ushered the way for the smaller M114. The newer M114 served a short operational life in service with the United States Army, seeing some action in the conflict though being subsequently forced into early retirement after just a few years of use. In all, her tenure would last just over a decade. Her reconnaissance value in the Vietnam War was eventually replaced by the more capable, four-man M551 Sheridan light reconnaissance tank of 1969 mounting its powerful 152mm main gun. Key limitations of the M114 became her poor mechanical reliability, especially when exposed to the rigors of the jungle environment. She was also deemed underpowered for the cross-country role and lacked much in the way of crew protection - particularly from land mines. Her hull also proved less than desirable when attempting to cross ditches and fording streams proved a chore. The M114 was removed from Vietnam War service as soon as November of 1964. It was not until 1973 that General Creighton Abrams formally brought about the retirement of the M114 from the US Army inventory - labeling the little machine as a "failure".

Whereas the M113 was specifically designed to transport combat-ready troops to battle zones while offering some level of protection, the diminutive M114 was specifically categorized as a "Command and Reconnaissance Carrier" built for speed and concealment from foes - ready to dictate enemy positions, movement or reactions ahead of a main operating force. As such, she remained a much lighter and smaller prospect - even capable of being air-dropped - when compared to the M113 and featured one less road wheel to a track side. Both the M113 and M114 were amphibious allowing them to traverse certain bodies of water though with some prior preparation, being propelled through the water by the power of their turning tracks. The M114's drive sprocket was held at the front of the hull (near the engine) with the track idler at the rear. No track return rollers were present.


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Specifications for the
M114 CRV
Command and Reconnaissance Vehicle


Country of Origin: United States
Manufacturer: Cadillac Motor Car Division of General Motors Corp, USA
Initial Year of Service: 1962
Production: 615


Focus Model: M114 CRV
Crew: 4


Overall Length: 14.63ft (4.46m)
Width: 7.64ft (2.33m)
Height: 7.55ft (2.30m)
Weight: 7.5 US Short Tons (6,846kg; 15,093lbs)


Powerplant: 1 x Chevrolet 283-V8 Military 8-cylinder, 4-cycle, vee gasoline Engine with 305MC HydraMatic Transmission generating 160hp @ 4,200rpm.


Maximum Speed: 36mph (58 km/h)
Maximum Range: 275 miles (443 km)


NBC Protection: None
Nightvision: Yes - Infra-red for driver


Armament:
M114/M114A1:
1 x 12.7mm Browning M2 heavy machine gun
1 x 7.62mm M60 general purpose machine gun
3 x M72A1 LAW launchers on rear door

M114A2:
1 x 20mm M139 cannon
1 x 7.62mm M60 general purpose machine gun
3 x M72A1 LAW launchers on rear door


Ammunition:
1,000 x 12.7mm ammunition
3,000 x 7.62mm ammunition


Variants:
M114 - Prototype Vehicles


M114 - Initial Production APC

M114A1 - Revised commander's weapon station; internally-controlled 12.7mm machine gun; manually-powered cupola; revised trim vane.

M114A2 - Main machine gun replaced by 20mm Hispano-Suiza HS.820 cannon (US M139); hyraulically-powered commander's cupola.

M114A1E1 - Original Designation for M114A2 model.


Operators:
United States