With the wider acceptance of firearms, even the Age of Sail was not immune to the evolution seen in land-based warfare. The flintlock became the accepted standardized action for guns and this method allowed for a more reliable, contained operation, birthing an all-new generation of pistols and muskets in turn. It was only a matter of time before they were adopted by the naval powers of the world to be used for boarding actions when volleying of cannon fire turned to close-ranged hand-to-hand fighting. Early navies utilized varying types of these arms aboard warships and it was not until the 18th century that the British Royal Navy began moving in the direction of standardized, naval-minded small arms. One such product became the Sea Service pistol of .54 caliber which was in use by the Royal Navy throughout its wars with neighboring France spanning approximately 1750 to 1815.
At their core, the Sea Service pistols were conventional flintlock weapons requiring a piece of flint rock to be held in a vice atop the hinged hammer-cock. The flint was then scrapped against an awaiting metal face (frizzen/flash pan) during the falling action of the hammer drop which created the necessary sparks, introduced through a small hole into the propellant basin (as part of the frizzen/flash pan) within the gun, to actuate the charge and force the ammunition ball out of the barrel. The action relied on proper tension from an included external spring, tumbler and sear/trigger lever arrangement. Flintlocks were generally inaccurate and prone to misfire, particularly in wet or damp environments though, despite this trait, they were the firearm action of choice for some 200 years before the arrival of the percussion cap which housed much of the action internally. Due to the long reloading process and single-shot firing of flintlocks, they allowed only for a single firing to be had before closer-ranged combat took place with blunt, edged or pointed weapons. From that point forwards, the weapon was relegated to use as a club or simply discarded. The single-shot nature of such guns often times forced an operator to wield several pistols a pseudo "repeat-fire" action.
The Sea Service pistol utilized a smooth, single-piece wooden stock which incorporated the grip handle. Brass was used at the trigger ring and butt while metal was exclusive to the action at the lock plate and barrel - these areas requiring material of appropriately high tolerance. The lock plate was fitted to the right side of the gun body with the barrel inlaid along the forward section. Because the charge and ball ammunition were loaded manually through the muzzle, a ramrod was integral to the design and usually of wood or brass. The ramrod was sheathed in a channel underneath the barrel and pulled out when required, ramming the contents of the barrel down towards the action.
Original Sea Service models were issued with a 12-inch long barrel and it wasn't until sometime in the 1790s that thought was given to a more compact form utilizing a shorter, 9-inch barrel length. Early versions of this pistol were seen with the East India Company and thusly accorded the name of "East India Company Sea Pistol". The Sea Service pistol saw combat service throughout several of the major campaigns of the period including the French and Indian War (1754-1763 - as part of the Seven Years' War), the American Revolution (1775-1783), the Battle of Trafalgar (1805) and the War of 1812 (1812-1815). Through capture of British stocks, they were hastily adopted by the American Army during the War of 1812 while the Mexican government eventually purchased the pistols in bulk from the British after the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815).
Sea Service pistols lived a long and healthy service life during a rather romanticized period of warfare though they remained killing instruments through and through. The percussion cap proved wholly more reliable than existing flintlocks by the 1860s and many existing flintlock firearms were converted to percussion firing as a result.
Manufacturing State Armories - UK
Mexico; United Kingdom; United States
- Close Quarters Battle (CQB) / Personal Security
304 mm (11.97 in)
Flintlock; Muzzle-Loading; Single-Shot
British Sea Service .54 Cal - Base Series Designation; available in 12-inch and, later, 9-inch barrel lengths.
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