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USS Oregon (BB-3)


Predreadnought Battleship


USS Oregon BB-3 made up the third of the three-strong Indiana-class of predreadnought battleships in service with the United States Navy heading into the 1900s.
Authored By: Staff Writer | Edited: 5/2/2019
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Specifications


Year: 1896
Status: Decommissioned, Out-of-Service
Ships-in-Class: 3
Named Ships: USS Indiana (BB-1); USS Massachusetts (BB-2); USS Oregon (BB-3)
Roles:
Complement: 473
Length: 350.1 ft (106.71 m)
Width: 69.2 ft (21.09 m)
Height: 27 ft (8.23 m)
Displacement (Surface): 10,455 tons
Propulsion: 4 x Scotch couble-ended boilers (later superceded by 8 x Babcock & Wolcox boilers) with 2 x Vertical inverted Triple Expansion reciprocating steam engines driving 2 x Shafts.
Speed (Surface): 15 kts (17 mph)
Range: 4,866 nm (5,600 miles; 9,012 km)
Operators: United States
The United States began its growth as a notable all-modern naval power in the late 1800s - fresh off of its bloody Civil War (1861-1865). By the early 1900s, the force was becoming a major global player and this culminated with the voyage of the "Great White Fleet" (1907-1909) - a two-squadron armada of United States Navy (USN) warships, to include sixteen battleships, undertaking a journey around the world in a show-of-force. During this period, naval superiority provided both political leverage and protection of vital shipping lanes while also serving well as tools of deterrence and intimidation.

USS Oregon (BB-3) became a product of the period, adding considerable firepower and protection to serve American interests. Ordered on June 30th, 1890, USS Oregon saw her keel laid down by Union Iron Works on November 19th, 1891. She was launched to sea on October 26th, 1893 and formally commissioned on July 15th, 1896. While termed a "battleship" when she was commissioned, the arrival of HMS Dreadnought in Britain during 1906 ultimately rendered ships like Oregon "pre-dreadnought" battleships in short order. HMS Dreadnought revolutionized naval warfare by her uniformed main battery and steam turbine machinery providing an excellent combination of firepower and speed.

USS Oregon was part of the three-strong Indiana-class which included USS Indiana (BB-1) and USS Massachusetts (BB-2). Her original machinery utilized 4 x Scotch double-ended boilers with 2 x vertical inverted triple expansion reciprocating steam engines driving up to 9,000 horsepower to 2 x shafts under the stern. The Scotch boilers were replaced by 8 x Babcock & Wilcox boiler units during her career. Maximum speed in ideal conditions was 15 knots and range was out to 5,600 miles.

Oregon's original armament was 2 x 13" /35 caliber twin-gunned main turrets on her deck backed by 4 x 8" /35 caliber twin-gunned turrets. She also carried 4 x 6" /40 caliber guns, 20 x 6-pounder cannon and 6 x 1-pounder guns. In keeping with surface warship design of the time, Oregon was outfitted with 4 x Whitehead torpedoes. In 1908, the 6" guns were removed while, in 1910, 12 x 3" /50 caliber guns were added.

The vessel's silhouette revealed a traditional warship arrangement by late-1800 standards. Two inline smoke funnels were seen at midships with a main mast reaching high above the bridge. The bridge sat behind and above the forward main gun turret. The aft main gun turret was seated over the stern. The 8"guns were contained in four smaller turrets surrounding the superstructure. Lifeboats were identified near midships. Her typical crew complement numbered 473. Armor protection included up to 460mm at the belt, 380mm at the main turrets, and up to 250mm at the conning tower. Deck protection reached 76mm.






As Union Iron Works was located in San Francisco, California along America's West Coast, USS Oregon was conveniently assigned to the U.S. Pacific Squadron in the early going (the Panama Canal had yet to be built and thus transiting to Atlantic waters were quite a journey). As the political situation between Spain and the United States began to deteriorate, the vessel relocated to the American East Coast for the foreseeable future. With no convenient passage options available, Oregon rounded the South American southern coast to reach Atlantic waters, covering some 16,000 total miles during a journey spanning from March to May 1898. War with Spain formally began on April 25th, 1898.

As part of the Atlantic Squadron, USS Oregon was used to help blockade Santiago. On July 3rd, 1898, she supported American actions during the Battle of Santiago which resulted in a decisive U.S. victory as five battleships, an armored cruiser, and two militarized yachts of the USN tangled with four cruisers and a pair of destroyers from the Spanish Navy. American casualties numbered one dead and one wounded to Spain's 323 dead, 151 wounded, and 1,720 captured. During the fighting, Oregon's speed was put to good use alongside USS Brooklyn as they ran down the escaping Cristobal Colon - which was forced to surrender.

The war with Spain ended months later on August 12th, 1898 with an American victory (and the demise of the Spanish Empire) but spurred a new war in the Philippines. USS Oregon was stationed in Pacific waters once again and completed a one-year tour during the Philippine-American War (1899-1902). The war's results were quite the same as the Americans forced a Philippine surrender and became American territory for the foreseeable future. USS Oregon then stationed off Wusong, China during the Boxer Rebellion (August 1899 - September 1901) as a multinational coalition battled Chinese and Yihetuan anti-imperialist forces - the war becoming a coalition victory. Oregon returned stateside for a much needed overhaul. During March of 1903, the vessel was back in Asian waters and completed a three-year commitment in the region. Following that, the vessel was decommissioned for the first time during April 1906.

During August of 1911, USS Oregon was recommissioned but this service tenure was short-lived. The subsequent years proved rather uneventful and Oregon was set back into reserve status from 1914 onwards. With the outbreak of war in Europe during the summer of 1914 to begin World War 1 (1914-1918), tensions worldwide mounted and the United States ultimately entered the war on the side of the Allies during 1917. This pulled USS Oregon back into active service as she was used to escort vital cargo ships supporting the White Russian forces against the Communist Red Army during the Russian Civil War (1917-1922) - an outgrowth of the global conflict.

With World War 1 having ended with the Armistice of November 1918, USS Oregon was a victim of the military drawdown and the Washington Naval Treaty naval limitations that proceeded the conflict, being decommissioned again on October 4th, 1919. She became a floating museum for the state of Oregon beginning in June of 1925 and remained at this post for decades. She was handed the new designation of IX-22 in February of 1941.

With the arrival of World War 2 (1939-1945), the United States was once-again plunged into a European conflict and all manner of war-making goods were sought. Unfortunately for the Oregon, she was unfit for combat as a warship but her sea-going usefulness was not completely overlooked. She was returned to USN ownership and converted to serve in wartime where she was present at the Battle of Guam (July - August 1944) and aided in the American victory as an ammunition carrier under tow. Oregon managed to survive the war intact and ended her days near Guam after the Japanese surrender of 1945. In November of 1948, Oregon fell victim to a passing typhoon which severed her lines from her berthing place. She drifted out to sea before being located and recovered. Once brought back, it was decided the vessel best be scrapped. She was sold off in March of 1956.






Armament



2 x 13" /35 caliber main guns (twin-gunned turrets)
4 x 8" /35 caliber guns (twin-gunned turrets)
4 x 6" /40 caliber guns (removed in 1908)
12 x 3" /50 caliber guns (1910 onward)
20 x 6-pounder (57mm) guns
6 x 1-pounder (40mm) guns
4 x 18" (450mm) Whitehead torpedo tubes

Air Wing



None.
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