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Stridsvagn 104 (Strv 104)


Main Battle Tank (MBT)


Sweden | 1953



"The Stridsvagen Strv 104 Main Battle Tank was the Swedish Army version of the British Centurion in service during the Cold War decades."



Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 09/25/2018 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site; No A.I. was used in the generation of this content.
The Strv 104 became the Swedish version of the storied British "Centurion" Main Battle Tank (MBT) line detailed elsewhere on this site. The Centurion was selected by Swedish authorities in the post-World War 2 years to succeed an aging collection of light and medium tanks then currently in service with Army forces. After formal review of available options worldwide, it was settled that the Centurion Mk 3 model offered the best combination of performance, capabilities, firepower and upgrade potential to meet local Army needs going forward.

However, when it became apparent that the British would not be able to deliver the needed stock of Centurion Mk 3s to Sweden in the foreseeable future, a secretive local tank program was launched during 1951 that came to be known as "EMIL". This program sought to design, develop and ultimately produce an indigenous heavy tank to meet the need. Only two chassis were ever constructed as the focus shifted back to procuring an available vehicle instead. Luckily the British need to export goods was such that the timetable for Centurion deliveries to Sweden could now be advanced during late 1952. Some eighty Centurion Mk 3 units were ordered the following year and a further 110 examples (Centurion Mk 10) followed into the next decade. In Swedish Army service, the Centurion operated under various "Strv" designations (Stridsvagen), numbers being appended to mark the product's main gun caliber (see variants listing below).

The Swedish Centurions received a modernization throughout most of the 1980s to keep them viable fighting machines for the near future. Night Vision (NV) equipment support was added as were laser rangefinders and the main guns were given better stabilization for improved firing "on-the-move". The Fire Control System (FCS) was appropriately updated for increased effectiveness and barrels now received thermal sleeves. The hulls supported Explosive Reactive Armor (ERA) blocks to improved system and crew survivability - particularly against the rise in Anti-Tank Guided Missile (ATGM) reliance seen by the Soviet Army - they being the primary enemy in the region.

This work bought the line some additional operational service but, during the 1990s, the age of these vehicles and the fall of the Soviet Empire led to the Swedish Army gradually reducing and succeeding its Centurion stock. The acquisition of the West German / German Leopard 2A5S tank - known in Swedish Army nomenclature as the Strv 122 - all but signaled the end for the Centurion in Swedish service.

Throughout its service life, the Strv 104 was fielded in a variety of forms beginning with the "Strv 81" armed with the original British 20-pounder gun (this was the equivalent of the British Centurion Mk 3 form). The Armored Recovery Vehicle (ARV) was essentially the Centurion ARV and became the "Bargningsbandvagn 81" in Swedish service. The Centurion Mk 5 arrived in 1955 with Swedish equipment installed and were also part of the Strv 81 family. The "Strv 101" was the Centurion Mk 10 with its 105mm main gun and Swedish equipment fitted. "Strv 102" became the original Strv 81 models with the 105mm gun being fitted while "Strv 101R" marked Strv 101 models after the 1980s modernization was applied. Similarly the "Strv 102R" was the Strv 102 with the 1980s modernization applied as well as a frontal armor scheme mimicking that as used in the Strv 101R. The "Strv 104" became the Strv 102 with an Israeli transmission/engine coupling and numbered 80 units in all. "Strv 105" was a proposed update to the Strv 102R with a new FCS and suspension system - though only a sole prototype was made. The "Strv 106" was another proposed form, based on the Strv 101R, and also given an updated suspension. This initiative also fell to naught.

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Power & Performance
Those special qualities that separate one land system design from another. Performance specifications presented assume optimal operating conditions for the Stridsvagn 104 (Strv 104) Main Battle Tank (MBT).
1 x Rolls-Royce Meteor 12-cylinder, liquid-cooled gasoline engine developing 650 horsepower.
Installed Power
22 mph
35 kph
Road Speed
280 miles
450 km
Range
Structure
The physical qualities of the Stridsvagn 104 (Strv 104) Main Battle Tank (MBT).
4
(MANNED)
Crew
32.2 ft
9.8 meters
O/A Length
11.1 ft
3.38 meters
O/A Width
9.8 ft
3 meters
O/A Height
114,640 lb
52,000 kg | 57.3 tons
Weight
Armament & Ammunition
Available supported armament, ammunition, and special-mission equipment featured in the design of the Stridsvagn 104 (Strv 104) Main Battle Tank (MBT).
Early:
1 x 20-pdr main gun
1 x .30 caliber coaxial machine gun
12 x Smoke Grenade Dischargers

Later:
1 x 105mm L7 rifled main gun
1 x 12.7mm Anti-Aircraft (AA) heavy machine gun
1 x 7.62mm coaxial machine gun
12 x Smoke Grenade Dischargers
AMMUNITION:
64 x 105mm projectiles
600 x 12.7mm ammunition
4,750 x 7.62mm ammunition
12 x smoke grenades
SPECIAL EQUIPMENT:
Nightvision - YES - ADDED LATER.
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear Protection (CBRN) - NONE.
Variants
Notable series variants as part of the Stridsvagn 104 (Strv 104) family line.
Strv 81 - Original model with 20-pounder main gun; Centurion Mk 3; 80 examples ordered.
Strv 101 - Centurion Mk 10 with 105mm main gun and Swedish equipment fitted; 110 examples.
Strv 101R - Modernized Strv 101 of 1980s
Strv 102 - Strv 81 with 105mm installed
Strv 102R - Modernized Strv 102 models of 1980s
Strv 104 - Strv 102 with Israeli powerpack and transmission arrangement; 80 examples.
Strv 105 - Proposed form based on Strv 102R fitted with new suspension system and upgraded subsystems including new FCS.
Strv 106 - Proposed model based on Strv 101R with new suspension system; not pursued.
Barningsbandvagn 81 - Armored Recovery Vehicle (ARV); equivalent to the Centurion ARV model.
Operators
Global customers who have evaluated and/or operated the Stridsvagn 104 (Strv 104). Nations are displayed by flag, each linked to their respective national land systems listing.

Total Production: 350 Units

Contractor(s): State Factories - Sweden
National flag of Sweden

[ Sweden (retired) ]
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Design Qualities
Some designs are single-minded in their approach while others offer a more versatile solution to battlefield requirements.
ENGINEERING
MAIN BATTLE TANK
FRONTLINE ASSET
TANK-vs-TANK
Recognition
Some designs stand the test of time while others are doomed to never advance beyond the drawing board; let history be their judge.
Going Further...
The Stridsvagn 104 (Strv 104) Main Battle Tank (MBT) appears in the following collections:
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