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SA-3 (Goa) / S-125 Neva / Pechora

Surface-to-Air Missile Defense System [ 1961 ]

Despite its 1960s origins, the SA-3 Goa is still part of the military inventories of many countries.

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 11/14/2017 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.

With more nimble and advanced aircraft emerging from the West during the Cold War decades, it fell to Soviet engineers to develop counters when protecting the vast airspace of the Soviet frontier. These sort of developments always began with a more capable missile to which an associated tracking and engagement suite was coupled. The completed unit could then be seated on any tracked or wheeled chassis capable of carrying the weapon's weight or affixed as a static emplacement to defend key Soviet installations or regions.

In 1961, adoption of the S-125 "Neva" (also "Pehora") occurred in the Soviet Army. Its design was attributed to engineer Aleksei Mihailovich Isaev from the Almaz Central Design Bureau and intended as a bridge to the earlier S-25 "Berkut" missile series of 1955 and the high-altitude S-75 "Dvina" system of 1957. The S-125 went on to see combat service in the Yom Kippur War (1973), Angolan Civil War (1975-2002), the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), the Gulf War (1991), and the Kosovo War (1998-1999). Its widespread acceptance in the inventories of many Soviet-supported states and allies has allowed it to remain a viable air-defense system even today (2014). Additionally, modernization programs have expanded its battlefield usefulness for some host nations.

The basic vehicle for the S-125 launcher was a 6x6 wheeled Soviet Army truck which utilized a standard automobile configuration with a front-mounted diesel-powered drive and a three-person cab. This arrangement typically saw two of the large missiles seated over the rear of the vehicle. The launcher held an inherent elevation range as well as traversal. Deployment was first seen around the capital city of Moscow beginning in 1961 and, in time, the Soviet Navy deployed a special over-water version. Further development begat a quadruple missile launcher developed to increase first-hit chances.
Following in 1964 was a slightly revised form with improved guidance and added a modified rocket booster by way of the "S-125M" designation. It was, itself, improved through the upcoming "S-125M1". The navalized version became the SA-N-1 (M-1 "Volna"). Original missiles were designated "V-600" and sported a 132lb warhead with an engagement range out to 9.3 miles. Improvements to its design brought about adoption of the "V-601" series which added a further 22lbs to the warhead with drastically increased engagement beyond 20 miles. The warhead in both types was of a High-Explosive, FRAGmentation (HI-FRAG) design with command-based detonation. The missile was powered by a solid propellant rocket motor capable of reaching altitudes beyond 55,000 feet.

Beyond the missile section of the SA-3 arrangement was its direction radar. This was actually a collection of accompanying systems that included a C-band target acquisition element, a fire control and guidance segment, and an E-band altitude/rangefinder. Working collectively, the arrangement ensured a potent level of success even against fast-moving, agile targets.

For the remerging Russian Army, the S-125 series was eventually succeeded by the SA-10 "Grumble" (S-300) and SA-12 "Giant" families. Other operators have either discontinued use of the line or have developed local modernization programs (as is the case with Serbian and Ukrainian stocks). Former operators include Afghanistan, Cambodia, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Finland, Hungary, Iraq, Romania, Russia, Somalia, Slovakia, South Yemen, and Yugoslavia. Russia retired their stock during the 1990s and Iraq's collection was destroyed in the 2003 American-led invasion. Back in the 1991 Gulf War campaign, Iraqi SA-3s managed limited success against coalition aircraft - though claiming at least one General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon multirole fighter.

Notable current operators (as of 2014) include Angola, Cuba, Egypt, Georgia, India, Libya, North Korea, Poland, Syria, Venezuela, Vietnam, and Yemen (among others, see operators list).©MilitaryFactory.com
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Service Year

Soviet Union national flag graphic
Soviet Union


State Factories - Soviet Union
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National flag of Algeria National flag of Angola National flag of Armenia National flag of Bulgaria National flag of Cuba National flag of Czechia National flag of Egypt National flag of Ethiopia National flag of Finland National flag of Georgia National flag of modern Germany National flag of East Germany National flag of Hungary National flag of India National flag of Iraq National flag of Libya National flag of Mozambique National flag of North Korea National flag of Peru National flag of Poland National flag of Romania National flag of Russia National flag of Serbia National flag of Slovakia National flag of the Soviet Union National flag of Somalia National flag of Syria National flag of Tanzania National flag of Turkmenistan National flag of Ukraine National flag of Vietnam National flag of Yemen National flag of Yugoslavia National flag of Zambia Algeria; Angola; Armenia; Azebaijan; Bulgaria; Burma; Cambodia; Cuba; Czechoslovakia; Egypt; East Germany; Ethiopia; Finland; Georgia; Hungary; India; Iraq; Libya; Moldova; Mozambique; North Korea; Peru; Poland; Romania; Russia; Serbia; Somalia; Soviet Union; South Yemen; Slovakia; Syria; Ukraine; Tanzania; Turkmenistan; Vietnam; Yemen; Yugoslavia; Zambia
(OPERATORS list includes past, present, and future operators when applicable)
Anti-Aircraft / Airspace Denial
Base model or variant can be used to search, track, and neutralize airborne elements at range.

2 OR 4 x Surface-to-Air Missiles (V-600 or V601 missile types).

Supported Types

Graphical image of a surface-to-air missile weapon

(Not all weapon types may be represented in the showcase above)
2 OR 4 x Surface-to-Air Missiles (V-600, 60kg warhead or V601, 70kg warhead).

SA-3 "Goa" - NATO Reporting Name
SA-N-1 "Goa" NATO reporting Name for navalized SA-3 Goa variant.
SA-3A - US DoD designation of base model
SA-3B - US DoD designation of "Neva-M" model
SA-N-1B - US DoD designation of navalized "Neva-M".
S-125 - Base Series Designation
S-125M "Neva-M" - Upgraded S-125; appearing in 1964.
S-125M1 "Neva-M1" - Upgraded S-125M
M-1 "Volna" - Navalized SA-3 Goa designation

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