×
Aircraft / Aviation Vehicles & Artillery Infantry Arms Warships & Submarines Military Pay Scale Military Ranks
HOME
ARMOR
MODERN ARMIES
COUNTRIES
MANUFACTURERS
COMPARE
BY CONFLICT
BY TYPE
BY DECADE
COLD WAR
MODERN

SA-15 (Gauntlet) / 9K330 Tor


Self-Propelled Surface-to-Air Missile (SAM) Vehicle (1986)


Land Systems / Battlefield

1 / 2
Image from the Russian Ministry of Defense.
2 / 2
Image from the Russian Ministry of Defense.

Jump-to: Specifications

The Russian-made SA-15 Gauntlet - known locally as the 9K330 Tor - is a modern self-propelled SAM vehicle with origins in the latter Cold War period.



Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 01/09/2020 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.
With the rise of ever-faster and more powerful warplanes in the 1960s and 1970s, the missile age was forged as a direct counter. This led both the East and West of the Cold War period (1947-1991) to fund development of all manner of missile-based defenses. For the Soviet Union, this led to the creation of a new self-propelled Surface-to-Air Missile (SAM) system known as the 9K330 'Tor' (NATO codename of SA-15 "Gauntlet"). The system was specifically designed to engage aerial targets in the low-to-medium altitude envelopes - making it ideal for area defense.

Design work began in 1975 with Antey OKB leading the charge aided by MKB Fakel supplying the missile component. Manufacture of the series, introduced in 1986, was undertaken by IEMZ Kupol, Metrowagonmash (managing production of the tracked chassis), and MZKT (providing a wheeled chassis derivative). Production of the line has since spanned from 1983 until the present day and variants of the series now include the original 'Tor' and subsequent notable marks of enhanced capability - the 9K330 has been progressively modernized to keep it a viable air-defense missile platform for the foreseeable future.

At its core, the 9K330 features an operating crew of three and weighs in at 34 tonnes in its tracked chassis guise. Overall length of the chassis reaches 7.5 meters with a beam of 3.3 meters and a height up to the hull roof line of 5.1 meters. The tracking radar sits atop the hull and can be stowed away during transport. Power is from a V-12 diesel -fueled engine of 830 horsepower driving the conventional track-and-wheel running gear, the engine being mated to a hydromechanical gearbox. The hull is suspended atop a proven torsion bar suspension system ideal for offroad traveling and the vehicle complete can reach road speeds of up to 65 kmh and operate out to ranges of 500 kilometers - allowing it to keep up with the main mechanized force is need be.

The included solid-fueled, rocket-boosted missiles of the 9K330 SAM system are typically fielded in packs of four ready-to-launch munitions. These 10-foot long weapons are designed to engage more agile targets at range, the missiles reaching speeds of up to Mach 2. Guidance is through a command-input system allowing for changes/corrections on-the-fly while detonation is through an onboard proximity fuse-based arrangement. The base missiles have a listed engagement range out to 12 kilometers giving the overall vehicle a good "reach" in a warzone. The weapons can target and engage enemies at altitudes beyond 30,000 feet (depending on missile mark).

The Tor SAM system is currently (2020) operated by the military forces of Algeria, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, China, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Iran, Peru, Russia, Ukraine, Venezuela, Yemen, Morocco, and Syria. Russia is, by far, the largest operator of the series with some 172 units in service with production currently ongoing. Georgia and Kazakhstan has both given up use of the missile system.

Russian forces deployed the Tor SAM system in the Syrian Civil War in support of the acting/current regime.

Variants of the 9K330 SAM system include the original 9K330 'Tor' unit of 1986, these followed by the improved 9K331 'Tor M1' mark of 1991 which brought along the new 9M331 missile of greater accuracy and a multi-target engagement capability. The 9K332 'Tor-M2E' became an upgraded model of 2007 and marks the latest widespread version available - boasting an all-new, more accurate fire control capability as well as greater automation with increased reaction times. The smaller size of these missiles allow eight to be housed in a pack while engagement ranges are increased to 16 kilometers.

The 'Tor-M1-2U' is a model of 2012 given a broader target reach - therefore more useful against smaller UAVs becoming commonplace over the modern battlefield as well as traditional large fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters. An all-weather capability is built in, increasing the tactical flexibility of the unit. This form is beginning to become available in useful numbers as of this writing.

The 'Tor-M2KM' is more of a versatile "mount-anywhere" version with a 15 kilometer engagement range while the 'Tor-M2DT' is designed for cold weather operation (particularly in the Arctic environment where weather extremes prove more common). The 'Tor-2E' is a more mobile, versatile offering being marketed along with a wheeled vehicle chassis equipped with 16-shot missile modules and intra-vehicle communications for a shared exchange of target information.

The navalized form of the Gauntlet became the 3K95 'Kinzhal' (exported as 'Klinok') known to NATO as SA-N-9. These missiles were introduced in 1989 and are similar in form and function to the 9M330 land-based weapons though optimized for on-water/over-water operation against aerial targets. The weapons are typically fitted on mid-to-large Russian Navy warships.

The HQ-17/FM-2000 is a Chinese variant thought to be based on the Soviet/Russian Tor SAM system.

Despite its Cold War-era roots, the Tor SAM system maintains an active presence around the world, primarily with Soviet/Russian allied partners and nations.

Specifications



Service Year
1986

Origin
Soviet Union national flag graphic
Soviet Union

Crew
3
CREWMEN
Production
550
UNITS


IEMZ Kupol / MZKT - Soviet Union / Russia
National flag of Algeria National flag of Armenia National flag of Azerbaijan National flag of Belarus National flag of China National flag of Cyprus National flag of Egypt National flag of Georgia National flag of Greece National flag of Iran National flag of Kazakhstan National flag of Morocco National flag of Peru National flag of Russia National flag of the Soviet Union National flag of Syria National flag of Ukraine National flag of Venezuela National flag of Yemen Algeria; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Belarus; China; Cyprus; Egypt; Georgia (former); Greece; Iran; Kazakhstan (former) Peru; Russia (Soviet Union - former); Ukraine; Venezuela; Yemen; Morocco; Syria
(OPERATORS list includes past, present, and future operators when applicable)
Anti-Aircraft / Airspace Denial
Base model or variant can be used to search, track, and neutralize airborne elements at range.


Length
24.6 ft
7.5 m
Width
10.8 ft
3.3 m
Height
16.7 ft
5.1 m
Weight
74,957 lb
34,000 kg
Tonnage
37.5 tons
MEDIUM
(Showcased structural values pertain to the 9K330 Tor production variant. Length typically includes main gun in forward position if applicable to the design)
Powerplant: 1 x V-12 diesel-fueled engine developing 830 horsepower to a conventional track-and-wheel arrangement (wheeled chassis or fixed emplacement also offered).
Speed
40.4 mph
(65.0 kph)
Range
310.7 mi
(500.0 km)
(Showcased performance specifications pertain to the 9K330 Tor production variant. Compare this entry against any other in our database)
2 x 4 9M330 Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAMs) (set in twin quad-launcher packs).


Supported Types


Graphical image of a surface-to-air missile weapon


(Not all weapon types may be represented in the showcase above)
4, 8, or 16 x Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAMs) depending on missile type and carrier/mounting.


9K330 "Tor" - Base Series Designation.
SA-15 "Gauntlet" - NATO codename/designation.
9KM331 Tor M1
9K332 Tor-M2E
Tor-M1-2U
Tor-M2KM
Tor-M2DT
Tor-2E
3K95 "Kinzhal"
HQ-17
FM-2000


Military lapel ribbon for the American Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for pioneering aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of the Bulge
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Kursk
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon representing modern aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur War
Military lapel ribbon for experimental military vehicles


Ribbon graphics not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns / operations.

Disclaimer | Privacy Policy | Cookies


2021 Military Pay Scale Army Ranks Navy Ranks Air Force Ranks Alphabet Code DoD Dictionary American War Deaths French Military Victories Vietnam War Casualties

The "Military Factory" name and MilitaryFactory.com logo are registered ® U.S. trademarks protected by all applicable domestic and international intellectual property laws. All written content, illustrations, and photography are unique to this website (unless where indicated) and not for reuse/reproduction in any form. Material presented throughout this website is for historical and entertainment value only and should not to be construed as usable for hardware restoration, maintenance, or general operation. We do not sell any of the items showcased on this site. Please direct all other inquiries to militaryfactory AT gmail.com.

Part of a network of sites that includes GlobalFirepower, a data-driven property used in ranking the top military powers of the world, WDMMA.org, the World Directory of Modern Military Aircraft, and SR71blackbird.org, detailing the history of the world's most iconic spyplane.


Facebook Logo YouTube Logo

www.MilitaryFactory.com • All Rights Reserved • Content ©2003-