Aviation & Aerospace - Airpower 2024 - Aircraft by Country - Aircraft Manufacturers Vehicles & Artillery - Armor 2024 - Armor by Country - Armor Manufacturers Infantry Small Arms - Warfighter 2024 - Small Arms by Country - Arms Manufacturers Warships & Submarines - Navies 2024 - Ships by Country - Shipbuilders U.S. Military Pay 2024 Military Ranks Special Forces by Country

SA-15 (Gauntlet) / 9K330 Tor

Self-Propelled Surface-to-Air Missile (SAM) Vehicle

Soviet Union | 1986

"The Russian-made SA-15 Gauntlet - known locally as the 9K330 Tor - is a modern self-propelled SAM vehicle with origins in the latter Cold War period."

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 03/21/2022 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site; No A.I. was used in the generation of this content.
With the rise of ever-faster and more powerful warplanes in the 1960s and 1970s, the missile age was forged as a direct counter. This led both the East and West of the Cold War period (1947-1991) to fund development of all manner of missile-based defenses. For the Soviet Union, this led to the creation of a new self-propelled Surface-to-Air Missile (SAM) system known as the 9K330 'Tor' (NATO codename of SA-15 "Gauntlet"). The system was specifically designed to engage aerial targets in the low-to-medium altitude envelopes - making it ideal for area defense.

Design work began in 1975 with Antey OKB leading the charge aided by MKB Fakel supplying the missile component. Manufacture of the series, introduced in 1986, was undertaken by IEMZ Kupol, Metrowagonmash (managing production of the tracked chassis), and MZKT (providing a wheeled chassis derivative). Production of the line has since spanned from 1983 until the present day and variants of the series now include the original 'Tor' and subsequent notable marks of enhanced capability - the 9K330 has been progressively modernized to keep it a viable air-defense missile platform for the foreseeable future.

At its core, the 9K330 features an operating crew of three and weighs in at 34 tonnes in its tracked chassis guise. Overall length of the chassis reaches 7.5 meters with a beam of 3.3 meters and a height up to the hull roof line of 5.1 meters. The tracking radar sits atop the hull and can be stowed away during transport. Power is from a V-12 diesel -fueled engine of 830 horsepower driving the conventional track-and-wheel running gear, the engine being mated to a hydromechanical gearbox. The hull is suspended atop a proven torsion bar suspension system ideal for offroad traveling and the vehicle complete can reach road speeds of up to 65 kmh and operate out to ranges of 500 kilometers - allowing it to keep up with the main mechanized force is need be.

The included solid-fueled, rocket-boosted missiles of the 9K330 SAM system are typically fielded in packs of four ready-to-launch munitions. These 10-foot long weapons are designed to engage more agile targets at range, the missiles reaching speeds of up to Mach 2. Guidance is through a command-input system allowing for changes/corrections on-the-fly while detonation is through an onboard proximity fuse-based arrangement. The base missiles have a listed engagement range out to 12 kilometers giving the overall vehicle a good "reach" in a warzone. The weapons can target and engage enemies at altitudes beyond 30,000 feet (depending on missile mark).

The Tor SAM system is currently (2020) operated by the military forces of Algeria, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, China, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Iran, Peru, Russia, Ukraine, Venezuela, Yemen, Morocco, and Syria. Russia is, by far, the largest operator of the series with some 172 units in service with production currently ongoing. Georgia and Kazakhstan has both given up use of the missile system.

Russian forces deployed the Tor SAM system in the Syrian Civil War in support of the acting/current regime.

Variants of the 9K330 SAM system include the original 9K330 'Tor' unit of 1986, these followed by the improved 9K331 'Tor M1' mark of 1991 which brought along the new 9M331 missile of greater accuracy and a multi-target engagement capability. The 9K332 'Tor-M2E' became an upgraded model of 2007 and marks the latest widespread version available - boasting an all-new, more accurate fire control capability as well as greater automation with increased reaction times. The smaller size of these missiles allow eight to be housed in a pack while engagement ranges are increased to 16 kilometers.

The 'Tor-M1-2U' is a model of 2012 given a broader target reach - therefore more useful against smaller UAVs becoming commonplace over the modern battlefield as well as traditional large fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters. An all-weather capability is built in, increasing the tactical flexibility of the unit. This form is beginning to become available in useful numbers as of this writing.

The 'Tor-M2KM' is more of a versatile "mount-anywhere" version with a 15 kilometer engagement range while the 'Tor-M2DT' is designed for cold weather operation (particularly in the Arctic environment where weather extremes prove more common). The 'Tor-2E' is a more mobile, versatile offering being marketed along with a wheeled vehicle chassis equipped with 16-shot missile modules and intra-vehicle communications for a shared exchange of target information.

The navalized form of the Gauntlet became the 3K95 'Kinzhal' (exported as 'Klinok') known to NATO as SA-N-9. These missiles were introduced in 1989 and are similar in form and function to the 9M330 land-based weapons though optimized for on-water/over-water operation against aerial targets. The weapons are typically fitted on mid-to-large Russian Navy warships.

The HQ-17/FM-2000 is a Chinese variant thought to be based on the Soviet/Russian Tor SAM system.

Despite its Cold War-era roots, the Tor SAM system maintains an active presence around the world, primarily with Soviet/Russian allied partners and nations.

Content ©MilitaryFactory.com; No Reproduction Permitted.
Power & Performance
Those special qualities that separate one land system design from another. Performance specifications presented assume optimal operating conditions for the 9K330 Tor Self-Propelled Surface-to-Air Missile (SAM) Vehicle.
1 x V-12 diesel-fueled engine developing 830 horsepower to a conventional track-and-wheel arrangement (wheeled chassis or fixed emplacement also offered).
Installed Power
40 mph
65 kph
Road Speed
311 miles
500 km
The physical qualities of the 9K330 Tor Self-Propelled Surface-to-Air Missile (SAM) Vehicle.
24.6 ft
7.5 meters
O/A Length
10.8 ft
3.3 meters
O/A Width
16.7 ft
5.1 meters
O/A Height
74,957 lb
34,000 kg | 37.5 tons
Armament & Ammunition
Available supported armament, ammunition, and special-mission equipment featured in the design of the SA-15 (Gauntlet) / 9K330 Tor Self-Propelled Surface-to-Air Missile (SAM) Vehicle.
2 x 4 9M330 Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAMs) (set in twin quad-launcher packs).
4, 8, or 16 x Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAMs) depending on missile type and carrier/mounting.
Nightvision - YES.
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear Protection (CBRN) - YES - OPTIONAL.
Notable series variants as part of the SA-15 (Gauntlet) / 9K330 Tor family line.
9K330 "Tor" - Base Series Designation.
SA-15 "Gauntlet" - NATO codename/designation.
9KM331 Tor M1
9K332 Tor-M2E
3K95 "Kinzhal"
Global customers who have evaluated and/or operated the SA-15 (Gauntlet) / 9K330 Tor. Nations are displayed by flag, each linked to their respective national land systems listing.

Total Production: 550 Units

Contractor(s): IEMZ Kupol / MZKT - Soviet Union / Russia
National flag of Algeria National flag of Armenia National flag of Azerbaijan National flag of Belarus National flag of China National flag of Cyprus National flag of Egypt National flag of Georgia National flag of Greece National flag of Iran National flag of Kazakhstan National flag of Morocco National flag of Peru National flag of Russia National flag of the Soviet Union National flag of Syria National flag of Ukraine National flag of Venezuela National flag of Yemen

[ Algeria; Azerbaijan; Armenia; Belarus; China; Cyprus; Egypt; Georgia (former); Greece; Iran; Kazakhstan (former) Peru; Russia (Soviet Union - former); Ukraine; Venezuela; Yemen; Morocco; Syria ]
1 / 2
Image of the SA-15 (Gauntlet) / 9K330 Tor
Image from the Russian Ministry of Defense.
2 / 2
Image of the SA-15 (Gauntlet) / 9K330 Tor
Image from the Russian Ministry of Defense.

Design Qualities
Some designs are single-minded in their approach while others offer a more versatile solution to battlefield requirements.
Some designs stand the test of time while others are doomed to never advance beyond the drawing board; let history be their judge.
Going Further...
The SA-15 (Gauntlet) / 9K330 Tor Self-Propelled Surface-to-Air Missile (SAM) Vehicle appears in the following collections:
Disclaimer | Privacy Policy | Cookies

2024 Military Pay Scale Military Ranks U.S. DoD Dictionary Conversion Calculators Military Alphabet Code Military Map Symbols US 5-Star Generals WW2 Weapons by Country

The "Military Factory" name and MilitaryFactory.com logo are registered ® U.S. trademarks protected by all applicable domestic and international intellectual property laws. All written content, illustrations, and photography are unique to this website (unless where indicated) and not for reuse/reproduction in any form. Material presented throughout this website is for historical and entertainment value only and should not to be construed as usable for hardware restoration, maintenance, or general operation. We do not sell any of the items showcased on this site. Please direct all other inquiries to militaryfactory AT gmail.com. No A.I. was used in the generation of this content.

Part of a network of sites that includes Global Firepower, WDMMA.org, WDMMW.org, and World War Next.

©2024 www.MilitaryFactory.com • All Rights Reserved • Content ©2003-2024 (21yrs)