Panzer Auto 1 (P.A.1) / (Junovicz)
Not known for its industrial might, the Austro-Hungarian Empire of World War 1 managed production of five of the P.A.1 Armored Cars for service.
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The Austro-Hungarian military of World War 1 (1914-1918) was slow to appreciate the value of the armored car prior to the conflict. It was influenced, rather heavily, by its foes in Russia and Italy who both took to using the armored car as an effective battlefield complement to infantry maneuvers. As such, the Austro-Hungarians soon took to development of several local systems - one becoming the Junovicz P.A. 1. ("Panzer Auto 1"). This car was developed by an officer within its ranks, holding the surname of "Junovicz" and appeared during 1915. The vehicle, therefore, came to bear his name.
As with other armored cars of the war, the P.A. 1 was built atop an existing, proven commercial truck chassis for expediency. The Fiat 40 truck - of Italian origination but produced locally under license - made up the base framework of the car. An utilitarian-looking, boxy armored superstructure was added to the chassis which protected the five occupants - a driver, commander, two machine gunners, and a dedicated loader - as well as the all-important engine in the bow. The vehicle weighed some four tons and exhibited a length of 5.7 meters, a width of 1.9 meters, and a height of 3.5 meters. Tall, heavy, and cumbersome in operation, the P.A. 1 showcased many of the same deficiencies seen in other armored cars of the period. Armor protection reached up to 7mm - suitable against small arms fire but little else. Power stemmed from a Fiat 12 liter, 4-cylinder gasoline-fueled engine developing 40 horsepower and allowed for road speeds of over 20 miles per hour with an operational range out to 217 miles.
Armament centered on two or three Schwarzlose Model 1907/12 machine guns to which one was generally positioned facing forward at the armored superstructure. The remaining guns could be fitted to any of the four firing ports along the sides of the vehicle (two ports per hull side).
The initial batch of cars numbered three and appeared during the fighting of 1915. In 1917, a fourth and fifth was added to the Austro-Hungarian stock - the former example built atop the chassis of a Bussing 36 truck and the latter built on the framework of a Saurer 34 truck. The operation existences of these vehicles is largely unknown but it is generally agreed-upon that the series was not pushed heavily in combat operations owing largely to the difficult terrain encountered on both the Italian and Russian fronts.