Over the past several decades or so there has been a considerable shift by modern armies of the world away from the expensive and complex tracked vehicle to more conventional armored wheeled carriers. This helped to bring other nation's engineering prowess to the forefront as was the case with the Finnish "Patria Pasi XA - a 6x6 wheeled armored vehicle serving in the Armored Personnel Carrier (APC) role. The Pasi XA (originally recognized as the "Sisu Pasi") was developed to a Finnish Army requirement for a modern APC that included an inherent amphibious quality. It has since been offered for export and taken on by Austria, Denmark, Estonia, Ghana, Ireland, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Nations.
The core Pasi XA design saw a 6x6 wheeled arrangement with three large diameter, well-spaced road wheels fitted to each hull side. Ground clearance was decidedly high which aided in cross-country travel. The driving compartment was set to the front of the hull and included thick bulletproof windscreens and automobile-style hinged side access doors. All windowed sections featured hinged armor panels that could be raised to add additional armor protection in active warzones. Two banks of four smoke grenade dischargers were fitted at the extreme front end corners of the hull and allowed the crew to shield its movements by way of self-generated smoke screens. The vehicle exhibited some slight sloping of its various armor panels which provided ballistics protection against small arms fire and shell splinters. With the driving compartment set forwards, the powerpack was centralized and this opened the rear of the hull for a fighting cabin to house passengers. The hull roof line was dotted with various access hatches for the crew and passengers alike. The sides of the vehicle hull walls were given vision blocks for use by the passengers as well as gun ports for engaging enemies from the safety of the protected hull. A pair of waterjets were installed low along the rear hull face to provide the necessary propulsion of the vehicle through water sources. Armor protection reached up to 10mm thickness at the most critical of facings. A typical operating crew was two (driver and commander) with seating for up to sixteen occupants.
The Pasi XA began life in pilot form as the XA-180 with the first example made unveiled in 1980. The vehicle was constructed by Sisu Auto which gave it its original name of Sisu Pasi. In competition with two other contenders, the XA-180 design won out under the Finnish Army trials that spanned into 1983 and resulted in a first-batch order of 50 vehicles by year's end. Sisu Auto, founded in 1931 in Helsinki, specialized in the manufacture of heavy vehicles and other automotive products and lent its name to the early Pasi vehicle forms until subsequent orders came at a time when Patria Oyj had taken over the product - producing the more recognizable "Patria Pasi" name. The product line was then formally known as the "Patria Pasi XA" and foreign launch customers became Estonia, Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden.
There have been five notable production Pasi XA variants revealed. The XA-180 was the original APC offering while the XA-185 followed as its improved form with a new transmission and engine installation. The XA-186 (running gear equal to the XA-185) was given additional armor as well as a heavy machine gun turret but the weight gains forced it to give up its amphibious capability. The XA-188 designated vehicles in service with the Netherlands Army. XA-200 was given a more updated armor protections scheme, support for night vision equipment, and improved situational awareness but lost its amphibious capability as well. Related models of this mark became the XA-202 Command and Communications (CC2) vehicle and the XA-203 APC used as an interim Finnish Army solution for the outgoing XA-185 - this vehicle replaced by the incoming 8x8 wheeled Patria AMV (Armored Modular Vehicle) APC.
Since its introduction during 1984, two distinct engine types have been featured in the Patria vehicle - XA-180 models were given a Valmet 611 DSBJA diesel of 236 horsepower while XA-200 models followed with a Valmet 612 DWIBIC series turbocharged engine of 271 horsepower. Depending on the installation, the Patria Pasi could reach a maximum road speed in excess of 100 kmh with an operational range out to 900 kilometers. Drive power was provided for all six wheels with suspension being of a parabolic leaf-spring with hydraulic shock absorbers.
The Patria Pasi was developed to support light-class weaponry for battlefield service and has supported weapon types such as 7.62mm medium machine guns, 12.7mm heavy machine guns, and 20mm automatic cannons through an optional rotating turret emplacement along the hull roof. Typical armament has been a sole 12.7mm heavy machine gun in addition to any personal weapons carried by the passengers and fired through the gun ports of the fighting compartment.
In practice, the Patria Pasi XA has proven a successful product through its ease of operation and versatility. Light armor protection and light armament support has meant that the Pasi XA has been used in largely in peace-keeping endeavors with the UN where it has showcased its excellent on-road/off-road qualities, mine resistance, and general serviceability. Police forces have also taken on the type for some of these same reasons. The Pasi XA has seen combat service in the war-torn environments of Afghanistan, Iraq, the Balkans, and elsewhere.
(Showcased structural values pertain to the Patria Pasi XA production model)
1 x Valmet 611 DSBJA diesel engine developing 236 horsepower OR 1 x Valmet 612 DWIBIC 6-cylinder turbocharged diesel engine developing 271 horsepower.
(Showcased powerplant information pertains to the Patria Pasi XA production model)
62 mph (100 kph)
559 miles (900 km)
(Showcased performance values pertain to the Patria Pasi XA production model; Compare this entry against any other in our database)
1 x 12.7mm NSV heavy machine gun OR 1 x 7.62mm general purpose machine gun.
8 x Smoke Grenade Dischargers.
OPTIONAL (if turret equipped):
1 x 20mm Autocannon OR 1 x 30mm Autocannon
1 x 40mm Automatic Grenade Launcher
1 x 7.62mm coaxial machine gun
Ammunition: 1,000 x 12.7mm ammunition.
8 x Smoke Grenades.
(Showcased armament details pertain to the Patria Pasi XA production model)
Pasi XA - Base Series Name
XA-180 - Base Armored Personnel Carrier; amphibious capable.
XA-185 - Upgraded Version of the XA-180 production model; improved engine and transmission performance; amphibious capable.
XA-186 - Upgraded armor arrangement; armed turret installation with 1 x 12.7mm heavy machine gun; similar powertrain to XA-185 production model.
XA-200 - Improved Armor Protection; nightvision standard.
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