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Kyushu Q1W Tokai (Eastern Sea) / (Lorna)

Anti-Submarine Bomber

Imperial Japan | 1945

"Though ordered in 1942, the Kyushu Q1W Tokai arrived in the final year of World War 2."

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 05/10/2016 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site; No A.I. was used in the generation of this content.
The Kyushu Q1W "Tokai" (translating to "Eastern Sea" and codenamed "Lorna" by the Allies) was an anti-submarine bomber utilized by the Empire of Japan in the last year of World War 2. The type was produced in limited numbers and fielded from land bases despite its use by the Imperial Japanese Navy. The aircraft was remembered for being underpowered for the task at hand but serviceable enough to be ordered into quantitative production as the world's first purpose-built dedicated anti-submarine aircraft in the world. Only some 153 examples were ever produced.

In late 1942, the Imperial Japanese Navy delivered its requirements for the development of the "17-shi" aircraft, a specialized anti-submarine platform under the formal designation of "Navy Patrol Plane Tokai". Japan was beginning to suffer increasing losses from American submarine activities in the Pacific and tons upon tons of wartime goods were being lost on a monthly basis across Japanese shipping lanes in the Theater. The aircraft firm Kyushu (formerly Watanabe) delivered the Q1W "Tokai" and first flight was achieved in September of 1943. The aircraft proved to have good handling qualities and an evaluation period followed. The system would not enter production until 1944, becoming operational in January of 1945. Working against the aircraft was also the fact that an intended advanced search radar was not installed and the Tokai would have to make do with a limited search radar system instead. In practice, the Tokai was done in by her underpowered engines and slow speed, becoming fodder for Allied fighter planes who themselves were ever-increasing in speed and firepower. The Japanese Empire would capitulate by the end of August 1945 and the legacy of the Tokai would effectively be ended in turn - along with any other Japanese war-making instruments.

Though often compared externally to the Junkers Ju 88 medium bomber, the Japanese Q1W held little direct relation to her German contemporary. The Tokai was in fact a dimensionally smaller overall design and charged with a more dedicated battlefield role. She shared the same "pencil" shaped fuselage appearance to which was affixed the heavily glazed upper crew compartment at the extreme forward end. The nose and forward fuselage floor was also heavily glazed to provide for adequate views for the bombardier. The fuselage was tubular and tapered off into a conventional empennage with a single vertical tail fin and a pair of high-mounted horizontal planes. Wings were cantilever mid-to-low-monoplanes mounted along the sides of the forward fuselage with large wing root surface areas and noticeable dihedral (upward angle). A single, stubby radial engine installation was underslung to each wing in partially-contoured nacelles. Each engine powered a three-bladed propeller system and sported noticeable conical propeller hubs. The undercarriage was traditional for the time, featuring two main single-wheeled landing gear legs and a diminutive single-wheeled tail wheel leg. The main landing gears semi-recessed into their respective engine nacelles. Crew accommodations amounted to three personnel.

Armament was purely defensive, and somewhat adequate for a military aircraft of this classification. A rear-firing 7.7mm Type 92 machine gun was fitted to a flexible mount in the rear of the crew cabin while one or two 20mm Type 99 forward-firing cannons were sometimes fitted as optional. Internally, the Q1W1 could make use of up to 1,100lbs of ordnance made up of bombs (2 x 550lbs) or depth charges, the latter for submarine hunting sorties.

Production of the Kyushu Q1W was severely limited and therefore only a handful of designations existed for its variants. Q1W1 was used to designated the single prototype and its Mark 11 first-run production model, the "Eastern Sea". Q1W2 represented the Mark 21 production model differentiated by its use of wood along the tail surfaces. Q1W1-K "Tokai-Ren" ("Eastern Sea-Trainer") was a single example four-seat trainer that never materialized in number.

The Q1W1 reported the following performance specifications from its twin Hitachi Amakaze-31 series 9-cylinder radial piston engines, each rated at 610 horsepower: Maximum speed of 201 miles per hour with a range of 839 miles. Service ceiling was limited to 14,730 feet with a rate-of-climb equaling 751 feet-per-minute. Empty weight was 6,839lbs with a maximum take-off weight of 11,720lbs.

As the Japanese war effort crumbled, Q1W1's were utilized in the role of dastardly Kamikaze suicide strikes against Allied naval vessels.

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Power & Performance
Those special qualities that separate one aircraft design from another. Performance specifications presented assume optimal operating conditions for the Kyushu Q1W1 Tokai (Eastern Sea) / (Lorna) Anti-Submarine Bomber.
2 x Hitachi Amakaze-31 9-cylinder radial piston engines delivering 610 horsepower each.
200 mph
322 kph | 174 kts
Max Speed
14,731 ft
4,490 m | 3 miles
Service Ceiling
834 miles
1,342 km | 725 nm
Operational Range
751 ft/min
229 m/min
City-to-City Ranges
Operational range when compared to distances between major cities (in KM).
The nose-to-tail, wingtip-to-wingtip physical qualities of the Kyushu Q1W1 Tokai (Eastern Sea) / (Lorna) Anti-Submarine Bomber.
39.7 ft
12.09 m
O/A Length
52.5 ft
(16.00 m)
O/A Width
13.5 ft
(4.12 m)
O/A Height
6,839 lb
(3,102 kg)
Empty Weight
11,724 lb
(5,318 kg)
Design Balance
The three qualities reflected below are altitude, speed, and range. The more full the box, the more balanced the design.
Available supported armament and special-mission equipment featured in the design of the Kyushu Q1W Tokai (Eastern Sea) / (Lorna) Anti-Submarine Bomber .
1 x 7.7mm Type 92 rear-firing machine gun on flexible mounting.

2 x 550lb bombs OR depth charges
1 OR 2 x 20mm Type 99 forward-firing cannon(s)
Notable series variants as part of the Kyushu Q1W Tokai (Eastern Sea) / (Lorna) family line.
Q1W1 - Single Prototype
Q1W1 "Tokai" Mark 11 - Initial Production Model
Q1W2 Mark 21 - Revised production model with wooden tail surfaces.
Q1W1-K "Tokai-Ren" - Trainer Conversion Model; seating for four personnel; all-wood construction; single example produced.
Global customers who have evaluated and/or operated the Kyushu Q1W Tokai (Eastern Sea) / (Lorna). Nations are displayed by flag, each linked to their respective national aircraft listing.

Total Production: 153 Units

Contractor(s): Kyushu Aiircraft Company - Japan
National flag of modern Japan

[ Imperial Japan ]
Relative Max Speed
Hi: 300mph
Lo: 150mph
Aircraft Max Listed Speed (200mph).

Graph Average of 225 MPH.
Era Crossover
Pie graph section
Showcasing Aircraft Era Crossover (if any)
Max Alt Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Production Comparison
Entry compared against Ilyushin IL-2 (military) and Cessna 172 (civilian) total production.
MACH Regime (Sonic)
RANGES (MPH) Subsonic: <614mph | Transonic: 614-921 | Supersonic: 921-3836 | Hypersonic: 3836-7673 | Hi-Hypersonic: 7673-19180 | Reentry: >19030
Aviation Timeline
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Image of the Kyushu Q1W Tokai (Eastern Sea) / (Lorna)
Nice high-angled left side view of a Kyushu Q1W1 Tokai bomber in flight; note American decals
2 / 3
Image of the Kyushu Q1W Tokai (Eastern Sea) / (Lorna)
Left side view of the Kyushu Q1W1 Tokai bomber at rest
3 / 3
Image of the Kyushu Q1W Tokai (Eastern Sea) / (Lorna)
Left side view of the Kyushu Q1W1 Tokai bomber

Mission Roles
Some designs are single-minded in their approach while others offer a more versatile solution to airborne requirements.
Some designs stand the test of time while others are doomed to never advance beyond the drawing board; let history be their judge.
Going Further...
The Kyushu Q1W Tokai (Eastern Sea) / (Lorna) Anti-Submarine Bomber appears in the following collections:
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