The Westland Whirlwind became a capable twin-engined, heavy fighter design that might have seen even better service numbers were it not for its selection of Rolls-Royce Peregrine engines. Originally slated to utilize the Rolls-Royce Merlin, the Whirlwind platform was instead relegated to using the underpowered Peregrine for nearly all Merlin stocks were directed to Supermarine Spitfire and Hawker Hurricane fighter production. As a result, the Whirlwind would break into military aviation with much promise but become an obsolete design as soon as June 1944 - replaced by the more capable Hawker Typhoon types in service. Total production of Whirlwinds netted just 116 units.
The Whirlwind was given an identifiable design with two underslung engine nacelles mounted under low-wing monoplane assemblies. While this elevated cockpit viewing for improved situational awareness, the pilot's vision was still obstructed by the wings and engine housings while also seated aft of a long nose assembly. The fuselage was tubular in its general shape with the tail unit of a T-style arrangement fitting a pair of horizontal planes to either side of a single rudder. Space in the nose section was reserved for a battery of 4 x 20mm cannons. The undercarriage continued the accepted "tail-dragger" three-point form featuring two main landing gear legs and a tail wheel. All were retractable into the airframe.
Tested as early as 1938 through the P.9 prototype (two completed), the Whirlwind did not see frontline service until 1940 to which it entered the war with some revolutionary design features. Chief among these became use of a "bubble" canopy which promised excellent all-around visibility for the pilot and became a fixture by war's end on several other fighter designs. Leading edge-mounted wing radiators were instituted as well.
Initial performance of the aircraft type proved only adequate though far below what was anticipated. The Peregrine powerplants did not offer huge gains though the airframe itself was reportedly extremely stable and fast at low altitudes. Whirlwinds were eventually given bomber escort roles during critical daylight bombing raids designed to disrupt and destroy Axis infrastructure and war-making capabilities. A dedicated fighter-bomber form, with underwing bomb racks (2 x 250lb or 500lb bombs), then appeared as the Whirlwind FB.Mk II. These were 67 Mk I fighter models converted to the role.
Stated performance figures for the Whirlwind included a maximum speed of 360 miles per hour, a range of 800 miles and a service ceiling of 30,300 feet. The engines of choice were Rolls-Royce Peregrine V12 liquid-cooled types which outputted at 885 horsepower each. These drove a pair of three-bladed propellers from de Havilland.
Engine development issues continued and this was coupled to a fast landing speed that did not endear the machine to warplanners who were already looking for a replacement. As such, the Whirlwind would lead a very short wartime service life and was retired in 1943. In fact, the final flight of a Whirlwind was recorded in June of 1943 after an attack on a German airfield at Poix, France (northeast). It only ever stocked two Royal Air Force squadrons from June 1940 to October 1943 (No. 137 and No. 263 squadrons). Production spanned from 1940 to January 1942.
An impressive initial design, history would force the Whirlwind to play second fiddle to the United Kingdom's more notable fighter and fighter-bomber designs.
(OPERATORS list includes past, present, and future operators when applicable)
✓Air-to-Air Combat, Fighter
General ability to actively engage other aircraft of similar form and function, typically through guns, missiles, and/or aerial rockets.
Ability to intercept inbound aerial threats by way of high-performance, typically speed and rate-of-climb.
✓Close-Air Support (CAS)
Developed to operate in close proximity to active ground elements by way of a broad array of air-to-ground ordnance and munitions options.
✓Intelligence-Surveillance-Reconnaissance (ISR), Scout
Surveil ground targets / target areas to assess environmental threat levels, enemy strength, or enemy movement.
32.7 ft (9.98 m)
45.0 ft (13.72 m)
11.5 ft (3.52 m)
7,840 lb (3,556 kg)
10,269 lb (4,658 kg)
+2,429 lb (+1,102 kg)
(Showcased structural values pertain to the Westland Whirlwind Mk I production variant)
2 x Rolls-Royce Peregrine liquid-cooled piston engines developing 885 horsepower each and driving three-bladed propeller units.
STANDARD (Mk I):
4 x 20mm Hispano cannons in nose.
STANDARD (Mk II):
4 x 20mm Hispano cannons in nose.
2 x 250lb or 500lb conventional drop bombs under the wings.
Support for aerial rockets.
(Not all ordnance types may be represented in the showcase above)
Hardpoint Mountings: 2
Mk I - Base Fighter Designation; fitted with 2 x Rolls-Royce Peregrine liquid-cooled piston engines delivering 885 horsepower each.
Mk II - Fighter-Bomber Variant; fitted with 2 x Rolls-Royce Peregrine 12-cylinder V-type engines delivering 765 horsepower each; up to 1,000lb of bombs.
Values are derrived from a variety of categories related to the design, overall function, and historical influence of this aircraft in aviation history.
The overall rating takes into account over 60 individual factors related to this aircraft entry.
Rating is out of a possible 100 points.
Relative Maximum Speed
This entry's maximum listed speed (360mph).
Graph average of 300 miles-per-hour.
Westland Whirlwind Mk I operational range when compared to distances between major cities (in KM).
Max Altitude Visualization
The 3 qualities we look at for a balanced aircraft design are altitude, speed, and range.
Aviation Era Span
Showcasing era cross-over of this aircraft design.
Unit Production (116)
This entry's total production compared against the most-produced military and civilian aircraft types in history (Ilyushin IL-2 and Cessna 172, respectively).
Ribbon graphics not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective aerial campaigns / operations / aviation periods.
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