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Renard Epervier (Sparrowhawk)

Single-Seat, Single-Engine Monoplane Fighter Prototype

Belgium | 1928

"The Renard Brothers attempted to satisfy a Belgian Air Force fighter requirement of the late-1920s with their Sparrowhawk design - it was not successful."

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 05/08/2018 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site; No A.I. was used in the generation of this content.
Belgian aero-industry has featured few notable indigenous aircraft designs when compared to neighboring European defense powers like France, Germany, and the United Kingdom. The Renard Epervier ("Sparrowhawk") was a local interwar attempt at designing a modern, all-metal single-seat monoplane fighter. Developed to compete against a government-funded contract for such an aircraft, it sadly never evolved beyond several prototype forms for a foreign design was adopted in its place.

Design work on the aircraft was headed by brothers Georges and Alfred Renard with the original model intended fit the Hispano-Suiza Model 12J 12-cylinder V-type liquid-cooled inline piston engine. The engine was installed at the nose section in the usual way. The wing mainplanes were straight and shoulder-mounted with twin struts originating from the lower fuselage used to reinforce their span. The wings were positioned just ahead of the cockpit which itself was open-air and seated a sole pilot. The fuselage then tapered rearwards to where the conventional single-finned tail unit was fitted. The "tail-dragger" undercarriage was fixed in flight and wheeled at the main legs, a tail skid used to bring up the rear during ground-running. The legs and wheels were faired over to help reduce drag - a common practice seen in many of the interwar aircraft preceding World War 2 (1939-1945).

As a combat fighter, the Renard design was to be outfitted with the typical period armament of 2 x 7.62mm air-cooled machine guns in fixed, forward-firing mounts synchronized to fire through the spinning propeller blades. This was to give it ample firepower against contemporary foes.

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As the 12J engine ultimately proved too difficult to come by, the Renards decided to equip their new fighter with the alternative Gnome-Rhone "Jupiter VI" series 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine which promised an output of 480 horsepower. The prototype featuring this powerplant was completed by Stampe et Vertongen and designated as "Epervier Type 2".

The aircraft achieved its monumental first-flight during 1928 but lived a short test life for it was lost when it could not recover from a flat / unrecoverable spin - resulting from dominant yaw axis / side-slip. A second prototype was constructed in its place as the "Epervier Type 2bis" and engineers took this time to introduce reworked landing gear fairings and revised spats as well as streamlined cylinder shrouds. This model was constructed by Societe Anonyme Belge de Constructions Aeronautiques (SABCA).

The new prototype went airborne for the first time during 1930 and competed openly against other types for the Belgian Air Force contract. However, it did not impress enough and was passed on in favor of the Fairey "Firefly II" biplane fighter of British origin.

Despite the defeat, a third prototype - the "Renard Epervier Type 3" - was built and ultimately tested by the Belgian Air Force itself. This mixed-construction offering was differentiated from the previous forms by its Rolls-Royce "F" engine of 480 horsepower and an all-new wing. However it served little beyond an evaluation product and was not adopted at any level.

The Renards continued their work in the field which resulted in several more pre-war types including the R-36, R-37, and R-38 monoplane fighters. None of these aircraft succeeded in their attempts - namely due to foreign competition or the German invasion and subsequent occupation of Belgium in World War 2.

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Power & Performance
Those special qualities that separate one aircraft design from another. Performance specifications presented assume optimal operating conditions for the Renard Epervier Type 2bis Single-Seat, Single-Engine Monoplane Fighter Prototype.
1 x Gnome-Rhone Jupiter VI 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine developing 480 horsepower and driving multi-bladed propeller at nose of aircraft.
171 mph
275 kph | 148 kts
Max Speed
1,545 ft/min
471 m/min
The nose-to-tail, wingtip-to-wingtip physical qualities of the Renard Epervier Type 2bis Single-Seat, Single-Engine Monoplane Fighter Prototype.
23.0 ft
7.00 m
O/A Length
33.5 ft
(10.20 m)
O/A Width
9.0 ft
(2.75 m)
O/A Height
1,753 lb
(795 kg)
Empty Weight
2,866 lb
(1,300 kg)
Available supported armament and special-mission equipment featured in the design of the Renard Epervier (Sparrowhawk) Single-Seat, Single-Engine Monoplane Fighter Prototype .
2 x 7.7mm machine guns in fixed, forward-firing mounts synchronized to fire through the spinning propeller blades.
Notable series variants as part of the Renard Epervier (Sparrowhawk) family line.
Epervier Type 2 - Original prototype model of 1928 with Gnome-Rhone Jupiter VI 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine; constructed by Stampe et Vertongen; lost in a flat-spin crash during testing.
Epervier Type 2bis - Second prototype with streamlining at undercarriage and engine cylinders; constructed by SABCA; competed unsuccessfully against foreign types in 1930.
Epervier Type 3 - Third prototype used as government test article for the Rolls-Royce "F" engine of 480 horsepower.
Global customers who have evaluated and/or operated the Renard Epervier (Sparrowhawk). Nations are displayed by flag, each linked to their respective national aircraft listing.

Total Production: 3 Units

Contractor(s): Renard Brothers - Belgium
National flag of Belgium

[ Belgium (trialed) ]
Relative Max Speed
Hi: 200mph
Lo: 100mph
Aircraft Max Listed Speed (171mph).

Graph Average of 150 MPH.
Era Crossover
Pie graph section
Showcasing Aircraft Era Crossover (if any)
Production Comparison
Entry compared against Ilyushin IL-2 (military) and Cessna 172 (civilian) total production.
MACH Regime (Sonic)
RANGES (MPH) Subsonic: <614mph | Transonic: 614-921 | Supersonic: 921-3836 | Hypersonic: 3836-7673 | Hi-Hypersonic: 7673-19180 | Reentry: >19030
Aviation Timeline
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Image of the Renard Epervier (Sparrowhawk)
Image from the Public Domain.

Mission Roles
Some designs are single-minded in their approach while others offer a more versatile solution to airborne requirements.
Some designs stand the test of time while others are doomed to never advance beyond the drawing board; let history be their judge.
Going Further...
The Renard Epervier (Sparrowhawk) Single-Seat, Single-Engine Monoplane Fighter Prototype appears in the following collections:
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