Military Factory logo

Standard J

United States (1917)
Picture of Standard J Biplane Trainer Aircraft
Picture of Standard J Biplane Trainer Aircraft Picture of Standard J Biplane Trainer Aircraft

The Standard J-1 spent much of its career playing second-fiddle to the Curtiss Jenny and was a product of the American effort of World War 1.


Detailing the development and operational history of the Standard J Biplane Trainer Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 3/13/2017. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com

Trainer aircraft types typically maintain service lives longer than their combat-minded brethren for these designs typically center on reliability and long-term use / abuse in the hands of student pilots. During World War 1 (1914-1918), the United States utilized several biplane models for the role of bringing up the next generation of military flyer. One of the series available became the Standard "J", a two-bay, twin-seat, single engine biplane which saw production reach over 1,600 units. The J did not fare as well as the competing Curtiss JN-1 "Jenny" (detailed elsewhere on this site) but saw extended service in private hands after the war - some through modifications of the base design.

The J was born from the earlier "Sloan H" family of biplanes engineered by Charles Day. This design was then carried under the Standard Aero Corporation brand label and became the focus of U.S. military efforts as its eventual involvement in World War 1 continued to grow. After a first-flight occurring in 1916, the evolved "J-1", with its four-cylinder Hall-Scott engine in the nose, was taken on by the U.S. Army. In time, competitors Dayton-Wright, Fisher, and Wright-Martin all got in on the production run of the J-1.

The J-series biplanes followed conventional design philosophies of the time. The student and instructor were seated in tandem open-air cockpits with basic instruments set ahead of them on a wood panel. Wire-bracing was used for reinforcement of the wood members and canvas skinning was prevalent. The wing mainplanes were of unequal span (the upper unit wider than the lower) and two bays were made from the parallel strutworks. The undercarriage included two wheeled main legs and a wooden tail skid. The primary engine fit was the Hall-Scott A-7 air-cooled straight-4 engine developing 100 horsepower and driving a two-bladed wooden propeller at the nose. The fuel stores were held in the forward section of the aircraft, set between the forward cockpit and the engine compartment.


Picture of the Standard J Biplane Trainer Aircraft
Picture of the Standard J Biplane Trainer Aircraft


Performance-wide, the J-series could hope to reach a maximum speed of 68 miles per hour and range out to 350 miles. Reaching 2,600 feet took some ten minutes.

The SJ-1 was a variant which introduced another pair of wheels set forward to help prevent "nose over" accidents. The JR-1 was designated an advanced trainer platform for the Army.

In practice, the J series was doomed by its relatively unreliable engine fit which was known to shake the aircraft to the extreme. The popularity of the "Jenny" soon surpassed the desire to purchase more J biplane trainers and, by mid-June of 1918, the Army fleet was purposely grounded as the Jenny line took over the role en mass.

In the post-war period, the J series was purchased from surplus, many still unused, and operated as mail carriers (JR-1B / E-4), barnstormers, student trainers, and privately-owned aircraft. Several interesting developments of the time included the "Lincoln Standard L.S.5" which incorporated a seating for four and the "Ryan Standard" which brought about an enclosed passenger cabin.

The J-series was never exported.






Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

Image of collection of graph types

Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 100mph
Lo: 50mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (68mph).

    Graph average of 75 miles-per-hour.
Relative Operational Ranges
NYC
 
  LON
LON
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MOS
MOS
 
  TOK
TOK
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Graph showcases the Standard J-1's operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era Impact
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
1605
1605


  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic
  Compare this entry against other aircraft using our Comparison Tool  
National Flag Graphic
National Origin: United States
Service Year: 1917
Classification Type: Biplane Trainer Aircraft
Manufacturer(s): Standard Aircraft Company / Dayton-Wright / Fisher Body / Wright-Martin - USA
Production Units: 1,605
Global Operators:
United States (retired)
Measurements and Weights icon
Structural - Crew, Dimensions, and Weights:
Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Standard J-1 model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.

Operational
CREW


Personnel
2


Dimension
LENGTH


Feet
26.57 ft


Meters
8.1 m


Dimension
WIDTH


Feet
43.96 ft


Meters
13.4 m


Dimension
HEIGHT


Feet
10.83 ft


Meters
3.3 m


Weight
EMPTY


Pounds
1,356 lb


Kilograms
615 kg


Weight
LOADED


Pounds
1,951 lb


Kilograms
885 kg

Engine icon
Installed Power - Standard Day Performance:
1 x Hall-Scott A-7 air-cooled engine developing 100 horsepower and driving two-bladed wooden propeller at the nose.

Performance
SPEED


Miles-per-Hour
68 mph


Kilometers-per-Hour
109 kph


Knots
59 kts


Performance
RANGE


Miles
351 mi


Kilometers
565 km


Nautical Miles
305 nm


Performance
CEILING


Feet
5,807 ft


Meters
1,770 m


Miles
1.10 mi


Performance
CLIMB RATE


Feet-per-Minute
260 ft/min


Meters-per-Minute
79 m/min

Armament - Hardpoints (0):

None.
Variants: Series Model Variants
• J - Base Series Designation
• J-1 - U.S. Army trainer model
• SJ-1 - U.S. Army advanced pilot trainer.
• JR-1 - Mailcarrier variant
• JR-1B / E-4 - Mailcarrier variant
• Night Mail - Curtiss conversion of 1922 to mailplane carrier; six examples completed.
• L.S.5 - Licoln Standard J-1 with seating for four in open-air cockpit.
• Nicholas-Beazley-Standard - J-1 modification by Nicholas-Beazley Airplane Company.
• Standard / Standard SJ - Civilian trainer by Sikorsky.