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Gloster Gauntlet

United Kingdom (1935)
Picture of Gloster Gauntlet Biplane Fighter Aircraft

The Gloster Gauntlet was the last RAF aircraft to sport an open-air cockpit in a biplane airframe.


Detailing the development and operational history of the Gloster Gauntlet Biplane Fighter Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 4/29/2015. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com

Gloster Gauntlet origins lay in a Gloster design appearing in the late 1920's for the Royal Air Force and served throughout the 1930's with several local and foreign-based air groups. The aircraft was designed as a fighter and became the fastest such aircraft for the RAF upon the aircraft's inception until unseated by the speedier Hawker Hurricane just two years later. Despite her archaic looks (by 1940's standards), the Gauntlet held her own along several key fronts during World War 2 and became for many-an-airmen their first taste of flight via training. The Gloster Gauntlet holds the distinction of being the last open-air cockpit biplane aircraft used by the Royal Air Force.

Gloster designed, produced and flew the model SS.18 prototype in January of 1929, fitting a Bristol Mercury IIA series radial engine of 450 horsepower and followed this attempt with the similar SS.18A and SS.18B models. The A-model sported a Bristol Jupiter VIIF engine of 480 horsepower whilst the B-model fitted the Armstrong Siddeley Panther III series of 560 horsepower. These developments were further refined with the arrival of the SS.19 prototype and its Bristol Jupiter powerplant. Again, the prototype model was spawned into two other sub-models in the SS.19A and the SS.19B. The A-model saw nothing more changed than its landing gears while the B-model was fitted with the Bristol Jupiter VIS engine of 536 horsepower. By September of 1933, the British Air Ministry liked what they saw in the SS.19 model prototypes and put in an initial production order for 24 of the type to be designated as the Gauntlet Mk I. First flight of the Mk I occurred in October of 1934.

By this time, Gloster Aircraft was absorbed under the Hawker Aircraft Limited (makers of the upcoming Hurricane monoplane) banner and it was deemed that the Gauntlet design should be revised to take on a new simpler wing construction method. As such, the Gauntlet was revised into an Mk II model.

The Gauntlet Mk I made its way into the RAF inventory in May of 1935 with the first user being No.19 Squadron at Duxford and immediately proved herself an upgrade to existing RAF frontline mounts, proving the fastest RAF fighter in service for the next two years until the arrival of the Hawker Hurricane. The Gauntlet was selected to replace the Bristol Bulldog, another radial-engined biplane design introduced back in 1929.
The Gauntlet Mk II appeared in May of 1936 with Nos.56 and 111 Squadrons and ultimately became the most-produced model of the Gauntlet series. The Mk II was powered by the Bristol Mercury VI S2 9-cylinder radial piston engine delivering up to 645 horsepower. Maximum speed was listed at 230 miles per hour with a range of 460 miles and a service ceiling of 33,500 feet. The Gauntlet Mk II featured a rate-of-climb of 2,300 feet-per-minute and could reach 20,000 feet in approximately 9 minutes. No fewer than 221 examples of this mark were eventually produced. Production of all Gauntlets ran from 1933 until 1936.

Despite her bygone-era looks, the Gloster Gauntlet was a stellar design by late 1920 standards and was still a serviceable aircraft well into the late 1930's. Her design was characterized by the staggered equal-span biplane wings featuring double bays and parallel struts. The radial engine powerplant was fitted to the extreme forward of the rounded fuselage powering a three-bladed propeller with coned-over spinner. The undercarriage was fixed with single wheels under the main load of the fuselage and wings. The tail was supported by a single tail wheel. The pilot say in an open air cockpit protected by nothing more than a forward windscreen. Overall. views from the craft were acceptable minus the forward view which was dominated by the long forward fuselage and engine mount. The wings, as well, added another element of obstruction. The empennage remained conventional for the time, sporting a single vertical tail fin and applicable horizontal planes. Armament was a rather unimaginative pair of 2 x Vickers .303 caliber machine guns synchronized to fire through the spinning propeller blades.

In 1937, a Gloster Gauntlet was trialed in the nightfighter experiments and became the first aircraft in history to make its way to a target directed solely by ground-based radar. By 1938, the type was showcasing its inherent limitations and replacements came in the form of the Gloster Gladiator, Hawker Hurricane and the almighty Supermarine Spitfire. In June of 1939, the aircraft still remained a primary mount of some RAF frontline units but were inevitably relegated to secondary duties, particularly as trainers for up-and-coming greenhorns. As events in World War 2 ramped up and more modern aircraft became available, all British mainland operational Gauntlets effectively disappeared, leaving a few foreign-based systems still in use. Up to April of 1940, Gauntlets were still being fielded around Palestine while later that year in East Africa, Gauntlets were credited for the downing of an Italian Caproni Ca 133 series bomber as well as taking on limited ground attack sorties.

Some 26 (14 at its peak usage) total Royal Air Force squadrons equipped with Gauntlets, representing the largest operator of the aircraft line. Australia fielded ex-RAF Gauntlets with No.3 Squadron while Denmark used it in its No.1 Squadron Royal Danish Air Force (the latter with 17 systems produced locally under license). Similarly, Southern Rhodesia operated ex-RAF Gauntlets in their No.1 Squadron of the Southern Rhodesian Air Force and South Africa utilized ex-RAF Gauntlets in squadrons Nos. 1 and No. 2 by way of the South African Air Force. Finland became the second largest operator, fielding the Gauntlet in no fewer than five squadrons. These systems were primarily used as trainers and fitted with ski landing gear for the rigors of Finnish winters.






Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

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Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 300mph
Lo: 150mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (230mph).

    Graph average of 225 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
NYC
 
  LON
LON
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MOS
MOS
 
  TOK
TOK
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Graph showcases the Gloster Gauntlet Mk II's operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
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Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
246
246


  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


Altitude Visualization
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Origin: United Kingdom
Year: 1935
Type: Biplane Fighter Aircraft
Manufacturer(s): Gloster Aircraft / Hawker Aircraft Limited - UK
Production: 246
Global Operators:
Australia; Denmark; Finland; Southern Rhodesia; South Africa; United Kingdom
Historical Commitments / Honors:

Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.
Measurements and Weights icon
Structural - Crew, Dimensions, and Weights:
Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Gloster Gauntlet Mk II model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.

Operational
CREW


Personnel
1


Dimension
LENGTH


Feet
26.41 ft


Meters
8.05 m


Dimension
WIDTH


Feet
32.78 ft


Meters
9.99 m


Dimension
HEIGHT


Feet
10.24 ft


Meters
3.12 m


Weight
EMPTY


Pounds
2,769 lb


Kilograms
1,256 kg


Weight
LOADED


Pounds
3,971 lb


Kilograms
1,801 kg

Engine icon
Installed Power - Standard Day Performance:
1 x Bristol Mercury VIS 9-cylinder radial piston engine developing 640 horsepower.

Performance
SPEED


Miles-per-Hour
230 mph


Kilometers-per-Hour
370 kph


Knots
200 kts


Performance
RANGE


Miles
460 mi


Kilometers
740 km


Nautical Miles
400 nm


Performance
CEILING


Feet
33,497 ft


Meters
10,210 m


Miles
6.34 mi


Performance
CLIMB RATE


Feet-per-Minute
2,300 ft/min


Meters-per-Minute
701 m/min

Supported Weapon Systems:

Graphical image of an aircraft medium machine gun
Armament - Hardpoints (0):

STANDARD:
2 x 7.7mm Vickers fixed forward-firing machine guns.
Variants: Series Model Variants
• SS.18 - Single-Seat Fighter Prototype; fitted with Bristol Mercury IIA series radial piston engine of 450 horsepower.
• SS.18A - Based on the S.S.18 model; fitted with Bristol Jupiter VIIF series radial piston engine of 480 horsepower.
• SS.18B - Based on the S.S.18 model; fitted with Armstrong Siddeley Panther III series radial piston engine of 560 horsepower.
• SS.19 - Single-Seat Fighter Prototype; fitted with Bristol Jupiter series radial piston engine.
• SS.19A - Based on the S.S.19 model; change to landing gear.
• SS.19B - Single-Seat Fighter Prototype; fitted with Bristol Jupiter VIS radial piston engine of 536 horsepower.
• Gauntlet Mk I - Single-Seat Fighter Model; 24 examples produced.
• Gauntlet Mk II - Single-Seat Fighter Model; 221 examples produced; based on Mark I model series with subtle improvements.