The Nakajima Ki-44 Shoki (meaning "Demon Queller" and codenamed "Tojo" by the Allies) was a single engine monoplane interceptor appearing in production throughout the war years. The system was designed with performance in mind and, as such, design focused more on a superior rate-of-climb and overall speed leaving other factors such as vision and maneuverability something to be desired. Despite their impressive fighter performance statistics, the Ki-44 was relegated to defense of the Japanese homeland as the Allied continually shrank Japanese territorial gains throughout the Pacific. Their heavy caliber armament did, however, proved mightily effective against the Boeing B-29 Superfortresses.
Development of the Ki-44 began in 1940 as a dedicated interceptor designed to a Japanese Army Air Force specification for a high speed platform with a good rate-of-climb. The design centered around the large Nakajima Ha-41 engine that had its origins as a bomber powerplant. The large engine was fitted into a streamlined fuselage design with a distinctly shortened and smallish tail assembly. The pilot's cockpit was positioned about midway on the upper portion of the fuselage. The engine sat some distance ahead of the pilot, offering some limitations to forward visibility particularly when taxiing the aircraft. The wings were low-mounted and positioned just forward of the cockpit and were designed with a small area making the Shoki a handful of an aircraft to land due to its high landing speeds. The initial prototype was airborne by August of 1940 and was showcased against an imported Messerschmitt Bf 109E model - the mainstay German Luftwaffe fighter in Europe - and proved superior to the German design in performance figures.
Trials for the Ki-44 were conducted in late 1941 with the first air group forming in December of that year. Homeland and territorial defense groups were formed thereafter in an attempt to protect vital industrial and oil positions from the aggression of Allied bomber groups attempting to cripple Japan from within. Suicide groups near Tokyo were also formed to combat B-29 Superfortresses. In all, some 12 air groups were allocated the Ki-44 Shoki in various defensive roles with the Japanese Air Force.
Power for the Ki-44-IIb was sponsored by a single Nakajima-brand Ha-109 radial engine delivering 1,519 horsepower. Performance specs included a top speed of 476 miles per hour with a service ceiling of 36,750 feet. A range of 1,060 was reported as was a rate-of-climb nearing 3,940 feet per minute. In all, these were impressive specifications for a dedicated single-seat interceptor of the time.
Standard armament of the Ki-44-IIb model centered around 4 x 12.7mm Ho-103 series heavy caliber machine guns. Two were mounted into the cowl and synchronized to fire through the spinning propeller blade, forcing this pair to have a lower rate-of-fire - reported at about 657 rounds-per-minute. Conversely, a second pair of 12.7mm machine guns of the same type were mounted one to a wing and offered up to 900 rounds-per-minute. Some 760 rounds of total 12.7mm ammunition were afforded to all guns.
Notable variants in the Shoki series included the base Ki-44 prototype, the Ki-44 Type I, the Ki-44 Type II, the Ki-44 II, Ki-44 IIc, the Ki-44 IIIa and the Ki-44 IIIb models. The ki-44 was the base prototype while the Ki-44 Type I was powered by the Nakajima Ha-41 series engine. The latter had a performance speed of 363 miles per hour and was armed with 2 x 7.7mm Type 89 machine guns and 2 x 12.7mm Ho-103 machine guns. The Ki-44 Type II was fitted with the Nakajima Ha-109 engine and delivered up to 378 miles per hour performance. This version was fitted with 4 x 12.7mm Type I machine guns. he Ki-44 II was another prototype model, this fitted with a Nakajima Ha-109 engine of 1,520 horsepower. The Ki-44 IIc was the first variant that showcased heavy-duty firepower, these armed with 4 x 20mm Ho-3 series cannons or coupled as 2 x 40mm Ho-301 cannons with 2 x 12.7mm Ho-103 machine guns. Cannon armament proved most effective against the high-altitude, well-defending Boeing B-29 Superfortresses. The Ki-44 IIIa sported 4 x 20mm Ho-5 cannons and an engine delivering up to 2,000 horsepower. The Ki-44 IIIb was fitted with 2 x 20mm Ho-5 cannons and 2 x 37mm Ho-203 cannons.
Manchukuo and Imperial Japan were wartime operators of the Shoki whereas China and Indonesia became operators of the type in post-war Asia. Production of the Ki-44 spanned from 1940 into 1944 to which some 1,225 examples were produced in total. The Ki-44 was eventually replaced by the Nakajima Ki-84 "Hayate" by the closing months of the war.
Status Retired, Out-of-Service
Production 1,225 Units
Nakajima Aircraft Company - Japanese Empire
Manchukuo; China; Imperial Japan; Indonesia
28.87 ft (8.8 m)
31.00 ft (9.45 m)
10.66 ft (3.25 m)
4,641 lb (2,105 kg)
6,603 lb (2,995 kg)
(Showcased weight values pertain to the Nakajima Ki-44-IIb Shoki (Tojo) production model)
1 x Nakajima Ha-109 air-cooled radial piston engine developing 1,520 horsepower driving a three-bladed propeller unit at the nose in puller fashion.
376 mph (605 kph; 327 kts)
36,745 feet (11,200 m; 6.96 miles)
1,056 miles (1,700 km; 918 nm)
3,940 ft/min (1,201 m/min)
(Showcased performance values pertain to the Nakajima Ki-44-IIb Shoki (Tojo) production model; Compare this aircraft entry against any other in our database)
Ki-44 Type I:
2 x 7.7mm Type 89 machine guns
2 x 12.7mm Ho-103 machine guns in wings
2 x 12.7mm Ho-103 machine guns in engine cowl synchronized with propeller.
2 x 12.7mm Ho-103 machine guns in wings (1 to a wing).
4 x 20mm Ho-3 cannons OR 2 x 12.7mm Ho-103 machine guns and 2 x 40mm Ho-301 cannons.
(Showcased armament details pertain to the Nakajima Ki-44-IIb Shoki (Tojo) production model)
Ki-44 - Used for both prototype designation and preproduction evaluation models.
Ki-44 Type I - Fitted with Nakajima Ha-41 engine of 1,250 horsepower; 2 x 7.7mm Type 89 machine guns and 2 x 12.7mm Ho-103 machine guns.
Ki-44 Type II - Fitted with Nakajima Ha-109 engine of 1,440 horsepower; 4 x 12.7mm Type I machine guns.
Ki-44 II - Prototype Model; fitted with Nakajima Ha-109 engine of 1,520 horsepower.
Ki-44 IIa - Mark 2a Series Designation
Ki-44 IIc - Fitted with 4 x 20mm Ho-3 cannons OR 2 x 12.7mm Ho-103 machine guns and 2 x 40mm Ho-301 cannons.
Ki-44 IIIa - Mark 3a Series Designation; fitted with 2,000 horsepower powerplant; armament of 4 x 20mm Ho-5 cannons.
Ki-44 IIIb - Fitted with 2 x 20mm Ho-5 cannons and 2 x 37mm Ho-203 cannons.
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.
The "Military Factory" name and MilitaryFactory.com logo are registered ® U.S. trademarks protected by all applicable domestic and international intellectual property laws. All written content, illustrations, and photography are unique to this website (unless where indicated) and not for reuse/reproduction in any form. Material presented throughout this website is for historical and entertainment value only and should not to be construed as usable for hardware restoration, maintenance, or general operation. We do not sell any of the items showcased on this site. Please direct all other inquiries to militaryfactory AT gmail.com.
Part of a network of sites that includes GlobalFirepower, a data-driven property used in ranking the top military powers of the world and WDMMA.org, the World Directory of Modern Military Aircraft.