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Halberstadt CL.II

Imperial Germany (1917)
Picture of Halberstadt CL.II Escort Biplane Fighter / Ground Attack Aircraft

Nearly 1,000 of the Hablerstadt biplane aircraft were produced during World War 1 - serving as escort fighters and ground attack platforms.


Detailing the development and operational history of the Halberstadt CL.II Escort Biplane Fighter / Ground Attack Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 12/9/2016. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com

It was the Halberstadt D.IV fighter that served as the basis for the CL.II escort fighter / ground attacker. The original D.IV was rejected by the German Air Service due to pilot vision out-of-the-cockpit and only saw three aircraft produced but it was this very design that influenced the upcoming CL.II, developed to a two-seat, defensive-minded patrol and pursuit requirement for the Germans of World War 1 (1914-1918). The CL.II fulfilled this role quite well and was produced to the tune of 900 examples.

The CL.II originally emerged under the designation of "C.II" during 1916 but this was reworked to become the "CL.II" in the summer of 1917. Like other aircraft in the Halberstadt stable, the CL.II carried a single 7.92mm LMG 08/15 synchronized machine gun in a fixed, forward-firing mounting for the pilot. Armament was augmented by the rear crewman being given management of a single 7.92mm LMG 14 series machine gun atop a flexible mounting. To fulfill the ground attack aspect of the requirement, the aircraft could be laden with up to five 22lb "Wurfgranaten 15" series trench mortar fragmentation bombs and ten stick grenades. Power was from a Mercedes D.III 6-cylinder inline engine of 160 horsepower driving a two-bladed propeller at the nose. A biplane wing arrangement (staggered) was used with parallel strutworks as was a fixed undercarriage (wheeled at the main legs) and open-air cockpits for the two crewmembers.

First-flight was had during early 1917 which led to a first-order placed in May. In August of that year, the aircraft was readied for battle and began arriving in useful numbers. Once in action, the series was well-regarded for its handling and power as well as good vision out-of-the-cockpit. In a matter of weeks, it proved itself one of the more valuable aircraft in service to the Germans as the type could engage air and ground targets with equal lethality - as well as defend itself when necessary. It also served as an escort to larger, slower and more vulnerable warplanes when needed, such was its over-battlefield flexibility.

To make up the 900-strong total, Halberstadt received no fewer than five total production batch orders and this accounted for at least 700 aircraft with manufacture ranging into the middle part of 1918. Bayerische FlugzeugWerke (BFW) supplied the other 200 aircraft in the total.

The CL.IIa was the sole variant of the CL.II line, this model carrying a BMW IIIa series engine and trialed for a time in frontline actions. It did not see quantitative production figures.

Both Lithuania and Poland became post-war operators of the CL.II.

As finalized, the CL.II could manage a maximum speed of 103 miles per hour with a service ceiling of 16,600 feet. Endurance was three hours and climb to 16,400 feet took forty minutes. Empty weight was 1,700lb against a Maximum Take-Off Weight (MTOW) of 2,500lb.

Any available statistics for the Halberstadt CL.II Escort Biplane Fighter / Ground Attack Aircraft are showcased in the areas immediately below. Categories include basic specifications covering country-of-origin, operational status, manufacture(s) and total quantitative production. Other qualities showcased are related to structural values (namely dimensions), installed power and standard day performance figures, installed or proposed armament and mission equipment (if any), global users (from A-to-Z) and series model variants (if any).






Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

Image of collection of graph types

Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 120mph
Lo: 60mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (103mph).

    Graph average of 90 miles-per-hour.
Relative Operational Ranges
NYC
 
  LON
LON
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MOS
MOS
 
  TOK
TOK
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Graph showcases the Halberstadt CL.II's operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era Impact
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
900
900


  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic
  Compare this entry against other aircraft using our Comparison Tool  
Supported Mission Types:
Air-to-Air
Interception
Unmanned
Ground Attack
Close-Air Support
Training
Anti-Submarine
Anti-Ship
Airborne Early Warning
MEDEVAC
Electronic Warfare
Maritime/Navy
Aerial Tanker
Utility/Transport
Passenger Industry
VIP Travel
Business Travel
Search/Rescue
Recon/Scouting
Special Forces
X-Plane/Development
National Flag Graphic
National Origin: Imperial Germany
Service Year: 1917
Classification Type: Escort Biplane Fighter / Ground Attack Aircraft
Manufacturer(s): Halberstdter Flugzeugwerke (Halberstadt) / Bayerische FlugzeugWerke (BFW) - German Empire
Production Units: 900
Global Operators:
Imperial Germany; Lithuania (post-war); Poland (post-war)
Structural - Crew, Dimensions, and Weights:
Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Halberstadt CL.II model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.

Operational
CREW


Personnel
2


Dimension
LENGTH


Feet
23.95 ft


Meters
7.3 m


Dimension
WIDTH


Feet
35.27 ft


Meters
10.75 m


Dimension
HEIGHT


Feet
9.02 ft


Meters
2.75 m


Weight
EMPTY


Pounds
1,709 lb


Kilograms
775 kg


Weight
LOADED


Pounds
2,502 lb


Kilograms
1,135 kg

Installed Power - Standard Day Performance:
1 x Mercedes D.III 6-cylinder water-cooled inline piston engine developing 160 horsepower and driving a two-bladed propeller unit at the nose.

Performance
SPEED


Miles-per-Hour
103 mph


Kilometers-per-Hour
165 kph


Knots
89 kts


Performance
RANGE


Miles
311 mi


Kilometers
500 km


Nautical Miles
270 nm


Performance
CEILING


Feet
16,732 ft


Meters
5,100 m


Miles
3.17 mi


Performance
CLIMB RATE


Feet-per-Minute
550 ft/min


Meters-per-Minute
168 m/min

Armament - Hardpoints (5):

STANDARD:
1 x 7.92mm Spandau LMG 08/15 machine gun in fixed, forward-firing mounting synchronized to fire through the spinning propeller blades.
1 x 7.92mm Parabellum MG14 machine gun on flexible mounting in rear cockpit.

OPTIONAL:
5 x 22lb Wurfgranaten 15 series trench mortar fragmentation drop bombs.
Visual Armory:

Graphical image of an aircraft medium machine gun
Graphical image of an aircraft conventional drop bomb munition
Variants: Series Model Variants
• CL.II - Base Series Designation
• CL.IIa - Limited test form fitted with BMW IIIa series engines.
• C.II - Original designation of 1916