MANUFACTURER(S): Luft-Fahrzeug-Gesellschaft GmbH (LFG Roland) / Pfalz - Imperial Germany
OPERATORS: Bulgaria; Imperial Germany
LENGTH: 22.80 feet (6.95 meters)
WIDTH: 29.36 feet (8.95 meters)
HEIGHT: 10.24 feet (3.12 meters)
WEIGHT (EMPTY): 1,576 pounds (715 kilograms)
WEIGHT (MTOW): 2,105 pounds (955 kilograms)
ENGINE: 1 x Mercedes D.III 6-cylinder in-line water-cooled piston engine developing 160 horsepower and driving two-bladed wooden propeller in nose.
SPEED (MAX): 112 miles-per-hour (180 kilometers-per-hour; 97 knots)
RANGE: 224 miles (360 kilometers; 194 nautical miles)
CEILING: 16,404 feet (5,000 meters; 3.11 miles)
RATE-OF-CLIMB: 715 feet-per-minute (218 meters-per-minute)
Detailing the development and operational history of the LFG Roland D.II (Shark) Single-Seat Biplane Fighter Aircraft.
Entry last updated on 10/27/2016.
Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com.
LFG Roland of Germany built a healthy, deep stable of combat aircraft for the German Empire during World War 1 (1914-1918) and this included fixed-wing types as well as airships. A development of 1916 became the D.II - later known as the "Shark" - a single-seat, single-engine biplane fighter that was adopted for service in early-1917 and produced to the tune of 300 examples by both LFG Roland and competitor Pfalz. The D.II was developed from the earlier D.I biplane which, itself, was a further evolution of the two-seat C.II reconnaissance mount. The D.II was fielded by the German Empire and Bulgarian air services.
Due to its origins in the C.II/D.I, the D.II carried over similar physical features that included a streamlined, and rather deep, fuselage. A large spinner covered the propeller hub. The biplane wing arrangement showcased single bays with parallel strut works and applicable cabling. The pilot sat aft and under the upper wing assembly - though the wing itself sat low over the forward fuselage and restricted much of the forward-down, forward-side vision from the pilot. A wheeled, tail-dragger undercarriage was featured as was a single vertical tail fin.
Internally, the D.II was completed with a plywood monocoque fuselage construction. The fuselage was essentially made up of two halves joined at a center line (with glue) and the entire structure was skinned over in fabric for added strength. Not only did this provide for the needed clean and aerodynamically refined look of the aircraft it also produced a rather lightweight overall structure.
Armament was conventional for the period - 2 x LMG08/15 (Spandau) series machine guns set over the nose and synchronized to fire through the spinning propeller blades by way of "interrupter" gear.
As finalized, the D.II design could stay aloft up to two hours and reach a ceiling of over 16,000 feet. Maximum speed was listed at 112 miles per hour.
The initial field variant was known simply as "D.II" and these forms carried the Mercedes D.III piston engine of 160 horsepower. The mark was followed by the "D.IIa" which switched over to an Argus As.III engine of 180 horsepower but, despite the added output power, the aircraft suffered at altitudes beyond 10,000 feet - forcing the type to low-level operations. The C.V existed as a "one-off" two-seat prototype form still carrying the original Mercedes D.III engine (160 horsepower). Pfalz-produced D.II and D.IIa models were designated as D.II (Pfal) and D.IIa (Pfal) respectively to differentiate their factory origins. One hundred of each form were produced by Pfalz Flugzeugwerke.
In service, the aircraft did not prove itself as formidable as its appearance would suggest. Controlling was deemed below average, requiring a steady hand by the pilot and some useful experience in combat, and vision out-of-the-cockpit was poor owing to the placement of the upper wing assembly. Where the D.II did shine was in straightline performance from its Mercedes engine coupled with the sleek fuselage - it could match or outpace contemporary fighters. It was also well-armed and featured a strong internal structure.
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Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.
Relative Maximum Speed Rating
This entry's maximum listed speed (112mph).
Graph average of 90 miles-per-hour.
Graph showcases the LFG Roland D.II's operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units