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Focke-Achgelis Fa 330 Bachstelze (Wagtail)

Nazi Germany (1943)
Picture of Focke-Achgelis Fa 330 Bachstelze (Wagtail) Rotary-Wing Autogyro Aircraft
Picture of Focke-Achgelis Fa 330 Bachstelze (Wagtail) Rotary-Wing Autogyro Aircraft Picture of Focke-Achgelis Fa 330 Bachstelze (Wagtail) Rotary-Wing Autogyro Aircraft
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About 200 of the Focke-Achgelis Fa 330 series autogyros were produced by Germany.


Detailing the development and operational history of the Focke-Achgelis Fa 330 Bachstelze (Wagtail) Rotary-Wing Autogyro Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 11/18/2017. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com

Focke-Achgelis of Germany developed several helicopter and helicopter-type products for its participation in World War 2 (1939-1945). The most notable of the lot became the Fa 223 "Drache" which served in the military helicopter transport role to which some twenty examples were produced. Another creation, the Fa 330, was developed along the lines of "autogyro" and intended for use as a maritime scouting platform for the German Navy. The system was a single-seat aircraft tethered to an accompanying U-boat submarine (serving as its "mothership"), requiring a crew of just two to operate optimally.

By this time in aviation history, the Autogyro concept was a decades-old one, pioneered by Spaniard Juan de la Cierva through various developments of his own during the 1920s and 1930s. The autogyro did not carry a motor to drive its main rotor blades, instead relying on an unpowered rotation of these rotors to generate lift through natural means. Forward flight could be accomplished by installation of an engine coupled to a propeller unit or through simply towing the machine through the air by some other outside means. The key consideration for autogyros was in keeping a constant flow of air running through the rotor blades and thus forcing their rotation. The result was a relatively cheap and simple aircraft with few operational requirements.

The concept was among several considered by the German Navy during World War 2 to expand Over-The-Horizon (OTH) vision, particularly for its submarine force that was largely confined to the surface of the water - scouting accomplished from the conning tower. Traditionally floatplane aircraft served in this role for surface warships but there lay a challenge in housing and operating such aircraft from space-strapped submarines. Hence the idea to pull-behind an unpowered aircraft to achieve better vision OTH was researched - resulting in the Focke-Achgelis Fa 330.

The Fa 330 used a simple metal frame to hold the critical mission components - including the single seat for the pilot, three-bladed rotor mast, vertical tailplanes, landing skids, and simplified control scheme involving a control stick. Beyond this there was no fuselage skinning or engine to contend with, making the Fa 330 an ideal, cheap system for mass production and operational use.


Picture of the Focke-Achgelis Fa 330 Bachstelze (Wagtail) Rotary-Wing Autogyro Aircraft
Picture of the Focke-Achgelis Fa 330 Bachstelze (Wagtail) Rotary-Wing Autogyro Aircraft


In theory, the Fa 330 - once assembled from its watertight compartments (two would be installed on the deck of the U-boat) - would be released from the deck of the surfaced submarine and towed, via cable line, behind the vessel so lift could be generated for the blades (and then sustained once enough lift was had). The pilot had limited control, but control nonetheless, to maneuver the aircraft about and the major benefit lay in his unfettered vision across the open span of ocean around him, relaying any pertinent information back to the submarine crew. Operating altitudes would reach 120 meters and setup / take-down of the system was around twenty to thirty minutes.

The Fa 330 was fielded operationally on some German U-boats towards the latter stages of the war - mainly in operating areas that were not overrun by patrolling Allied aircraft. The systems were deployed (in very limited numbers) during 1943 but provided limited tactical value in the grand scheme of the conflict - just one enemy ship could be claimed through use of an Fa 330 aircraft and this being a Greek steamship during August of 1943. A captured example fell to the Allies the following year and the design was studied at length. About 200 Fa 330s were constructed and these served from Type IX U-boats.

The prospect of using such towed autogyro systems for submarines became a moot point with the end of the war in 1945 and, from then on, helicopter technology - especially aboard warships - soon overshadowed any benefits inherent in the autogyro-at-sea. As such the concept was allowed to fall by the wayside as more modern battlefield solutions were furthered. In time, the helicopter would become such a key component to at-sea operations and not rivaled in value until the arrival of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Indeed, many modern warships feature a fixed helicopter flight deck over stern to support the launching and retrieval of rotary-wing aircraft. Newer warships are also supporting these same features for UAVs.

Several Fa 330 systems are on display at various museums around the world including the National Museum of the United States Air Force (Dayton, Ohio) and the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center (Chantilly, Virginia).

The Fa 330 was known as the "Bachstelze", or "Wagtail", in German.






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Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 50mph
Lo: 25mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (50mph).

    Graph average of 37.5 miles-per-hour.
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Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
200
200


  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


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Origin: Nazi Germany
Year: 1943
Type: Rotary-Wing Autogyro Aircraft
Manufacturer(s): Focke-Achgelis GmbH - Nazi Germany
Production: 200
Status: Retired, Out-of-Service
Global Operators:
Nazi Germany
Historical Commitments / Honors:

Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.
Measurements and Weights icon
Structural - Crew, Dimensions, and Weights:
Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Focke-Achgelis Fa 330A model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.

Operational
CREW


Personnel
1


Dimension
LENGTH


Feet
14.76 ft


Meters
4.5 m


Dimension
WIDTH


Feet
27.89 ft


Meters
8.5 m


Dimension
HEIGHT


Feet
5.58 ft


Meters
1.7 m


Weight
EMPTY


Pounds
55 lb


Kilograms
25 kg


Weight
LOADED


Pounds
386 lb


Kilograms
175 kg

Engine icon
Installed Power - Standard Day Performance:
None. Three-bladed main rotor used for autogyro effect.

Performance
SPEED


Miles-per-Hour
50 mph


Kilometers-per-Hour
80 kph


Knots
43 kts


Performance
CEILING


Feet
722 ft


Meters
220 m


Miles
0.14 mi

Armament - Hardpoints (0):

None.
Variants: Series Model Variants
• Fa 330 - Base Series Designation
• Fa 330A - Main production model; 200 examples produced for service on Type IX D2 U-boat submarines.