Military Factory
flag of United States

HMMWV (High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicle) / (Humvee) 4x4 High-Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicle (1985)

Authored By Staff Writer | Last Updated: 7/1/2014

Despite being nearly thirty years old, the revolutionary HMMWV will remain a mainstay of American and allied military forces the world over.

Tweet
Aside from the M1 Abrams, perhaps no other American armored vehicle has represented the American Army more than the venerable Humvee series of four-wheeled vehicles. Since its inception, the Humvee has become a staple of military operations both globally and domestic. The type's straight-faced appearance, wide-stance and utilitarian functionality have endeared her to a once-suspect military community and a public always ready for the next new thing in off-road capability. The Humvee today represents the pinnacle evolution of the war time Jeep, with an origin indirectly dating back to the smallish 50-60 horsepower machines that were once the standard mode of transportation to our serving grandfathers.

In February of 1981, the US Army set forth a requirement for a new tactical four-wheel drive light vehicle to take on the designation of High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) and be capable of delivery to any given location on the battlefield via helicopter. The Army had found a tremendous amount of success with its World War 2-era series of small jeeps but the vehicle was still a design with its roots dug well into another time. Beyond that, it had experimented by militarizing civilian trucks for the same role but these conversions left much to be desired. As such, the HMMWV specification called for a universal solution to the Army's needs, one that would also peak interest from the United States Air Force and the United States Marine Corps equally. A multi-role product with commonality of parts and ease of conversion to other roles was now the call of the day. US Army requirements were high - perhaps a bit too ambitious - but the need was quite desperate.

By July of that year, the US Army had invited AM General, Chrysler Defense and Teledyne Continental to a prototype face-off, each required to build no fewer than eleven vehicles utilizing a common chassis but with conversions showcasing the type's possible multi-faceted use in the field. Prototypes would include a TOW-capable system, an unarmored base vehicle and a hardtop battlefield ambulance. The program was known as the XM998. Testing began in April of 1982 with AM General's design winning out.

Interestingly enough, AM General owed its origins to the Willys-Overland Company responsible for the World War 2-era "Jeep". Willys-Overland was purchased by Kaiser in 1953, becoming Kaiser-Jeep Corporation before indirectly evolving into AM General Corporation. American Motors Corporation purchased Kaiser-Jeep in 1970 and branched AM General as a subsidiary. Jeep Corporation now remained as a separate entity. During all this time, the companies were still fulfilling US Army needs and production of military trucks was their forte. Eventually, AM General was purchased out once again, this time by LTV Corporation in 1983. By 2004, AM General was now brought under ownership of the Renco Group.

AM General submitted a conventional four-wheel drive system with a forward-mounted diesel engine mated to an automatic transmission, a large passenger cabin and good off-road capabilities. AM General secured the Army's favor in their new system following the agreement of a $1.2 billion dollar contract on March 22nd, 1983, calling for the production and delivery of 55,000 total HMMWV examples. Additional USAF, USN and USMC orders brought the total closer to 70,000 examples.

The HMMWV development was sped along in order to enforce the ranks of the US Army. As such, the system appeared with some notable deficiencies when put through the rigors of military use. Maintenance for early HMMWVs proved a bear for Army mechanics and inherent reliability of these early vehicles left much to be desired. As such, efforts were made in part by the General Accounting Office to curtail the massive production contract awarded to AM General. The US Senate did just that on June 14th, 1984, which essentially forced the US Army to place the HMMWV design into further testing and evaluation. AM General managed to address several major and minor issues during this time and testing by the US Army, US Navy and US Marine Corps all helped to solidify the HMMWV as ready for production. The HMMWV entered service with the US Army in 1985.

The HMMWV was first fielded in anger in the 1989 US Invasion of Panama during Operation Just Cause (the operation also signified the introduction of Lockheed's F-117 Nighthawk stealth fighter) in an effort to unseat dictator Manuel Noriega. Operational results for the type proved excellent as a whole, showcasing reliability and good performance under the rigors of wartime use.

The HMMWV eventually took on the A0, A1 and A2 generational designations (A0 appeared retroactively after A1 was beginning its usage in US Army terminology). A0 represented the original production Humvees, these fitted with a 6.2 liter, 150 horsepower, liquid-cooled V-8 diesel engines. The engines were mated to a General Motors THM400 automatic transmission system featuring all-wheel drive capability. In all, the A0 family of variants comprised of the M998, M1038, M1037, M1042, M996, M997, M1035, M966, M1036, M1045, M1046, M1025, M1026, M1043 and M1044. A heavy-duty version of the A0 soon appeared in September of 1992 as the M1097 HHV (Heavy Hummer Variant). This new vehicle provided for an improvement to capabilities over the original A0 model thus expanding the products reach.

The A1 appeared in 1994 with revised front seats, grille and rifle mounts and was essentially developed from the M1097 HHV. These vehicles took on the designation of M998A1. The A1 family was comprised of the M998A1, M1038A1, M1097A1, M996A1, M997A1, M1035A1, M966A1, M1045A1, M1025A1, M1026A1, M1043A1 and the M1044A1.

The A2 was another much-improved Humvee with origins in the M998A1. A new 160 horsepower, 6.5 liter diesel engine was mated to a digital four-speed automatic transmission. Rear seats were redesigned as was the heater and steering column. A2's also had provision for the CTIS (Central Tire Inflation System) to be added as an option in the field. This on-the-fly adjustability provided for direct operator control in maneuvering the Humvee through the most unforgiving off-road terrain imaginable. The A2 variant line is made up of the M1097A2 (three versions of this model - base, mover and shelter carrier), M1123A2, M997A2, M1035A2, M1025A2, M1043A2 and the M1045A2.


Text ©2003-2014 www.MilitaryFactory.com. All Rights Reserved. No Reproduction Permitted. Email corrections/comments to MilitaryFactory at Gmail dot com. Material presented throughout this website is for historical and entertainment value and should not to be construed as usable for hardware restoration, maintenance or general operation. Consult manufacturers directly for such information.

Specifications for the
HMMWV (High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicle) / (Humvee)
4x4 High-Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicle


Country of Origin: United States
Manufacturer: AM General / O'Gara-Hess and Eisenhardt - USA
Initial Year of Service: 1985
Production: 180,000


Focus Model: M998 HMMWV (Humvee)
Crew: 1 + 3


Overall Length: 14.99ft (4.57m)
Width: 7.05ft (2.15m)
Height: 5.97ft (1.82m)
Weight: 2.6 US Short Tons (2,358kg; 5,199lbs)


Powerplant: 1 x V8 6.2 liter displacement fuel-injected liquid-cooled compression ignition diesel engine delivering 150hp at 3,600rpm.


Maximum Speed: 65mph (104 km/h)
Maximum Range: 350 miles (563 km)


NBC Protection: Optional
Nightvision: Optional


Armament:
Choice of armament on Hummers with weapon ring can include one of the following:

1 x 40mm MK 19 Mod 3 air-cooled automatic grenade launcher.
1 x 12.7mm Browning M2HB air-cooled heavy caliber machine gun.
1 x 7.62mm M60 air-cooled General Purpose Machine Gun.
1 x 7.62mm M240B air-cooled General Purpose machine Gun.
1 x TOW-2B anti-tank missile launcher


Ammunition:
Mission-Specific. Can include the following:

1 x 40mm Mk 19 Mod 3 automatic grenade launcher
1 x 12.7mm Browning M2HB heavy machine gun
1 x 7.62mm M60 General Purpose Machine Gun
1 x 7.62mm M240 General Purpose Machine Gun
1 x TOW-2B anti-tank missile launcher
8 x Stinger short-range, air-to-air missile (Avenger)
6 x AIM-120 medium-range, air-to-air missile (SLAMRAAM/HUMRAAM)
M56 Smoke Generator


Variants:
XM998 - US Army Developmental Project Designation


M998 - Base Passenger/Cargo Carrier sans winch.

M1038 - Base Passenger/Cargo Carrier with winch.

M1037 - Shelter Carrier sans winch.

M1042 - Shelter Carrier with winch.

M996 - "Mini" Ambulance

M997 - "Maxi" Ambulance

M1035 - Soft-Top Ambulance

M966 - Base TOW Missile Carrier; sans winch.

M1036 - Base TOW Missile Carrier with winch.

M1045 - TOW Missile Carrier sans winch; fitted with supplemental armor for use by the USMC.

M1046 - TOW Missile Carrier with winch; fitted with supplemental armor for use by the USMC.

M1025 - Armament Carrier sans winch.

M1026 - Armament Carrier with winch.

M1043 - Armament Carrier sans winch; fitted with supplemental armor for use by the USMC.

M1044 - Armament Carrier with winch; fitted with supplemental armor for use by the USMC.

M998A1 - Base Passenger/Cargo Carrier sans winch.

M1038A1 - Base Passenger/Cargo Carrier with winch.

M1097A1 - Shelter Carrier

M996A1 - "Mini" Ambulance

M997A1 - "Maxi" Ambulance

M1035A1 - Soft-Top Ambulance

M966A1 - Base TOW Missile Carrier; sans winch.

M1045A1 - TOW Missile Carrier; sans winch; fitted with supplemental armor for use by the USMC.

M1046A1 - TOW Missile Carrier with winch; fitted with supplemental armor for use by the USMC.

M1025A1 - Base Armament Carrier; sans winch.

M1026A1 - Base Armament Carrier with winch.

M1043A1 - Armament Carrier; sans winch; fitted with supplemental armor for use by the USMC.

M1044A1 - Armament Carrier with winch; fitted with supplemental armor for use by the USMC.

M1097A2 - Base Passenger/Cargo Carrier; shelter carrier

M1123A2 - Passenger/Cargo Carrier for use by the USMC.

M997A2 - "Maxi" Ambulance

M1035A2 - Soft-Top Ambulance

M1025A2 -Base Armament/TOW Missile Carrier

M1043A2 - Armament/TOW Missile Carrier; sans winch; fitted with supplemental armor for use by the USMC.

M1045A2 - Armament/TOW Missile Carrier with winch; fitted with supplemental armor for use by the USMC.

M1069 - Artillery Tractor for M119 105mm gun.

M1113 - Shelter Carrier

M1114 - "Up-Armored" Armament Carrier

M1116 - "Up-Armored" Armament Carrier

M1151 - Armament Carrier

M1152 - Passenger/Cargo Carrier

"Avenger" - Air Defense; M037 chassis fitted with Avenger turret; 4 x Stinger short-range, air-to-air missiles.

"SLAMRAAM" / "HUMRAAM" -Air Defense; M113 chassis fitted with 6 x AMRAAM medium-range, air-to-air missiles.

VISMOD Humvee - Modified M998 Humvee chassis to appear outwardly as the Soviet BRDM-2 for war gaming.

Laser Humvee - Fitting the ZEUS-HLONS laser-ordnance neutralization system; M1114 chassis; development by Army Space and Missile Defense Command.

Humvee GMV (Ground Mobility Vehicle) - Special Forces Humvee; based on M1025A2 Armament/TOW Missile Carrier; later upgraded to utilize the M1113 ECH and M1114 chassis.

M1114 UAH - Long-Range Humvee Scout

LOSAT Humvee - "Line-of-Sight, Anti-Tank" developed by Lockheed Martin Corporation; ECH Humvee Carrier fitting four Kinetic Energy Missiles (KEM); trailer totes an additional 8 x missiles.

M707 "Knight" - Fire-Control Humvee; laser-designator equipped; based on M1025A2 Armament/TOW Missile Carrier.

"Cobra" - Scout Car; developed by AM General and produced by Turkish firm Otokar Otobus Karoseri Sanayi from the M1113 ECH chassis.

"Eagle I" - Scout Car; produced by Swiss firm Motorwagenfabrik; based on M1097A2 HMV.

"Eagle II" - Scout Car; produced by Swiss firm Motorwagenfabrik; based on M1113 ECH.

"Eagle III" - Scout Car/Forward Artillery Observation; produced by Swiss firm Motorwagenfabrik; based on M1113 ECH chassis.

Tiuna - Venezuelan Model

GAZ-2975 "Tigr" - Russian Model

Mahindra "Axe" - Israeli Development Model

Iveco LMV - Italian Development Model

Uro VAMTAC - Spanish Development Model

Dozor-A - Ukrainian Development Model; produced by Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau.

Hummer H1 - Civilian/Security/VIP Commercial Model based on the M998A0 production model; produced by AM General.

Hummer H2 - Civilian Commercial Model based loosely on the Humvee military series; produced by General Motors.

Hummer H3 - Civilian Commercial Model based loosely on the Humvee military series; produced by General Motors.


Operators:
Afghanistan; Albania; Canada; Algeria; Argentina; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; Georgia; Greece; Hungary; Iraq; Israel; Latvia; Lebanon; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia; Mexico; Morocco; Panama; Oman; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Taiwan; Romania; Russia; Saudi Arabia; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Thailand; Turkey; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Venezuela; Yemen; Zimbabwe