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Hawker Tempest Fighter-Bomber / Interceptor Aircraft (1944)

Authored By Staff Writer | Last Updated: 3/28/2014

The Hawker Tempest was a successful attempt to better the deficiencies of the earlier Hawker Typhoon design in its intended interceptor role.

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The Hawker Tempest originally appeared as an improved Hawker Typhoon, the war-winning aircraft that effectively failed in its intended role as an interceptor but went on to star as a low-level fighter-bomber. The Tempest began as the "Typhoon II" but featured so many new changes to the aircraft that it was redesignated into its own "Tempest" series classification. The Tempest achieved equal success as a ground-attack fighter-bomber but really shined in interception against the dreaded wave of V-1 flying bombs ravaging England.

Development
The Hawker design team set about to work on the failings of the Typhoon design and submitted a reworked model as Hawker P.1012 to the British Air Ministry in response to its Specification F.10/41. Improvements in fuel storage, a new wing and a redesigned cockpit were all contributing factors in the new design and ended up becoming the glaring deficiencies inherent in the original Typhoon model. The design was accepted as the "Typhoon II" and contracted through Hawker as two prototypes for review. The physical and internal changes in this new design, however, were so numerous that the series was redesignated as the "Tempest". The prototype Tempest aircraft achieved first flight on September 2nd, 1942 with success and, as a result, some 400 models in the Tempest I series were placed on order. However, due to delays of the intended Napier Sabre IV engine, the order was inevitably cancelled. The Tempest F.Mk II - with its Bristol Centaurus engine - was given the go-ahead instead. Once again, delays in engine production delayed this version and attention was moved to Tempest F.Mk.III and Tempest F.Mk IV models with their Rolls-Royce Griffon engines. These twin models were to also suffer unfortunate cancellation, giving rise to the first real production model to enter service in the form of the F.Mk V with its Napier Sabre II series engine.

The Tempest series differed from the Typhoon by sporting a longer fuselage and an all-new thin-section elliptical laminar flow low-mounted monoplane wing. The new wing was designed to solve the high-altitude performance deficiencies of the original Typhoon series and create a truly dedicated - and this time, successful - attempt at an interceptor. Five initial versions of the Tempest were conceived, though only three of these would ever see production in the forms of the Tempest F.Mk II, Tempest F.Mk.V and Tempest F.Mk VI fighter marks. The F.Mk II model would be powered by the Bristol Centaurus engine producing an astounding 2,520 horsepower while the F.Mk V would be powered by the 2,180 horsepower Napier Sabre II series engine and the F.Mk VI fitted with the Napier Sabre V of 2,340 horsepower. Of these three planned models, only the Tempest V actually went on to see combat service - entering the stage in 1943 and, at the time, the fastest fighter aircraft in the world - in the Second World War before the conflict's inevitable finale in mid-1945 though the series as a whole would soldier on up to about 1951.

Design
The Tempest retained some visual elements of the original Typhoons. The Tempest II, however, lost the chin radiator mount - a hallmark of the forerunner's look - and moved these into the wing leading edges. Beyond that, all Tempest models featured a slim rounded fuselage with rounded wings and tail surfaces and a four-blade propeller. The undercarriage was retractable (including tail wheel) and the pilot sat at the mid-fuselage position in a bubble canopy.

Armament
The Hawker Tempest carried over the armament from the Typhoon in the form of the proven 4 x 20mm Hispano Mk V cannons. This formidable armament could be augmented with the addition of 2,000lbs of external stores as needed. In this way, the Tempest could undertake the fighter-bomber role with ease and still provide the performance of a top-flight fighter in the process. The FB.Mk II ("FB" designating it a "Fighter-Bomber") variant was fitted with pylons for the launching of air-to-surface rockets or drop bombs - 338 examples of this version were reported to have been produced.


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Specifications for the
Hawker Tempest
Fighter-Bomber / Interceptor Aircraft


Focus Model: Hawker Tempest F.Mk V
Country of Origin: United Kingdom
Manufacturer: Hawker Aircraft Limited - UK
Initial Year of Service: 1944
Production: 1,422


Crew: 1


Length: 33.66ft (10.26m)
Width: 40.98ft (12.49m)
Height: 16.08ft (4.90m)
Weight (Empty): 9,251lbs (4,196kg)
Weight (MTOW): 13,640lbs (6,187kg)


Powerplant: 1 x Napier Sabre IIA water-cooled inline engine developing 2,180 horsepower.


Maximum Speed: 435mph (700kmh; 378kts)
Maximum Range: 740miles (1,191km)
Service Ceiling: 36,499ft (11,125m; 6.9miles)
Rate-of-Climb: 3,000 feet per minute (914m/min)


Hardpoints: 2
Armament Suite:
STANDARD:
4 x 20mm Hispano Mk V cannons

OPTIONAL:
External ordnance of up to 2,000lbs consisting of bombs or rockets.


Variants:
Hawker P.1012 - Hawker Design Designation


Typhoon F.Mk II - Original Designation based on the Typhoon series of fighter-bomber aircraft.

Tempest F.Mk I - Single Prototype Example; fitted with Napier Sabre IV engine; 400 production models ordered but abandoned when engine issues arose.

Tempest F.Mk II - Fitted with Bristol Centaurus engine of 2,520 horsepower; production models featured Centaurus V radial engines; 136 production examples produced.

Tempest FB.Mk II - Fighter-Bomber Variant of the base F.Mk II production model with underwing pylons for rockets and bombs; 338 examples produced.

Tempest F.Mk III - Prototype Model fitted with the Rolls-Royce Griffin piston engine.

Tempest F.Mk IV - Mk III prototype model fitted with Rolls-Royce Griffon 61 series powerplant.

Tempest F.Mk V (Series I) - Fitted with Napier Sabre II engine; long-barrel Mark II Hispano series cannons; 100 examples produced.

Tempest F.Mk V (Series II) - Fitted with Napier Sabre II engine; short-barrel Mark V Hispano series cannons; 700 examples produced.

Tempest F.Mk III - Prototypes of which 2 ordered; fitted with Rolls-Royce Griffon IIB in-line engine.

Tempest F.Mk VI - "Tropicalized" Variant; fitted with Sabre V engines of 2,340 horsepower; 142 examples produced.

Tempest TT.Mk V - Target Tugs of Mk V production model conversions.

Tempest TT.Mk VI - Target Tugs of Mk VI production model conversions.


Operators:
Canada; India; New Zealand; Pakistan; United Kingdom