Hawker Tempest Single-Seat Fighter-Bomber / Interceptor Aircraft
The Hawker Tempest was a successful attempt to improve upon the deficiencies seen in the earlier Hawker Typhoon for its intended interceptor role.
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The Hawker Tempest originally appeared as an improved Hawker Typhoon, the war-winning aircraft that effectively failed in its intended role as an interceptor but went on to star as a low-level fighter-bomber. The Tempest began as the "Typhoon II" but featured so many new changes to the aircraft that it was redesignated into its own "Tempest" series classification. The Tempest achieved equal success as a ground-attack fighter-bomber but really shined in interception against the dreaded wave of V-1 flying bombs ravaging England.
The Hawker design team set about to work on the failings of the Typhoon design and submitted a reworked model as Hawker P.1012 to the British Air Ministry in response to its Specification F.10/41. Improvements in fuel storage, a new wing and a redesigned cockpit were all contributing factors in the new design and ended up becoming the glaring deficiencies inherent in the original Typhoon model. The design was accepted as the "Typhoon II" and contracted through Hawker as two prototypes for review. The physical and internal changes in this new design, however, were so numerous that the series was redesignated as the "Tempest". The prototype Tempest aircraft achieved first flight on September 2nd, 1942 with success and, as a result, some 400 models in the Tempest I series were placed on order. However, due to delays of the intended Napier Sabre IV engine, the order was inevitably cancelled. The Tempest F.Mk II - with its Bristol Centaurus engine - was given the go-ahead instead. Once again, delays in engine production delayed this version and attention was moved to Tempest F.Mk.III and Tempest F.Mk IV models with their Rolls-Royce Griffon engines. These twin models were to also suffer unfortunate cancellation, giving rise to the first real production model to enter service in the form of the F.Mk V with its Napier Sabre II series engine.