Staff Writer (Updated: 7/24/2015):
The large aircraft grew out of "Specific Operational Requirement 182" calling for a tactical-/strategic-level, jet-powered transport. Lockheed managed to secure the requirement after heading off proposed designs from competitors Boeing, Douglas and General Dynamics by revealing a cigar-shaped aircraft with high-mounted, swept-back wings and a T-tail empennage. Lockheed gained a certain amount of valuable experience in developing their high-wing C-130 Hercules transport and this, no doubt, assisted in the design of the C-141. Massive internal volume would allow the aircraft to fulfill the intended cargo/passenger hauling role for the USAF and the hold would be accessed through a rear door and ramp configuration. Power was served through 4 x Pratt & Whitney TF33 series turbofan engines. The type was set to replace the limited-reach/scope propeller-driven aircraft still in use by US military forces of the post-World War 2 period. Interestingly, the program lacked a true prototype as the initial aircraft already carried the production-style designation of C-141A when it recorded its first flight on December 17th, 1963. Formal introduction followed in 1965 and production spanned from 1963 into 1968 and resulted in 285 total units.
The C-141 directly superseded the outgoing lines of Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter, C-124 Globemaster II and Boeing C-135 Stratolifter transports.
Due to the period in which the C-141 was adopted, it was pressed into service immediately for the Vietnam War (1955-1975). The American commitment in Southeast Asia had grown to huge levels and logistical support was as important as ever. Starlifter units began flying from stateside locations to the region over Pacific waters as soon as possible. In January of 1966, all C-141 aircraft fell under the new operating banner of Military Airlift Command (MAC). One of the more famous C-141s became the "Hanoi Taxi" which ferried hundreds of American prisoners of war (to include future Republican presidential nominee John McCain) during Operation Homecoming. She served some 40 years before retirement including support of the Hurricane Katrina aftermath of 2005.