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  • Avro York (Type 685) Four-Engined Heavy Transport / Airliner Aircraft

    The Avro York transport of World War 2 held roots in the classic Avro Lancaster heavy bomber of the same conflict.

     Updated: 7/28/2016; Authored By Staff Writer; Content ¬©www.MilitaryFactory.com

    In February of 1942 the Avro Lancaster four-engined heavy bomber was introduced for service with the Royal Air Force (RAF). Its participation in World War 2 (1939-1945) proved to be ultra-critical to the bombing campaign - and overall success - of the Allied war effort. Over 7,000 were produced and the last was not retired until 1963 by Canadian forces. While the Lancaster was developed from the Avro Manchester, it too served as the basis for several other large aircraft cousins all its own - the Avro Lincoln Heavy Bomber and the Avro York four-engined transports were two of its offspring.

    Avro proceeded with the design of a new four-engined transport based on its Lancaster under the "Type 685" designation. To expedite its development, the new aircraft retained the wing sections, tail unit and undercarriage of the original and had an all-new slab-sided fuselage added for improved internal volume. A double-finned rudder arrangement was seated at the extreme aft-end of the aircraft (just as in the Lancaster) and the cockpit flight deck was fitted at the extreme front end of the aircraft with good views over the nose. The operating crew numbered four.

    Power stemmed from 4 x Rolls-Royce Merlin 24 series liquid-cooled inline piston engines developing 1,280 horsepower each. Performance specs went on to include a maximum speed of 300 miles per hour, a range out to 3,000 miles, a service ceiling of 23,000 feet and a rate-of-climb of 820 feet-per-minute.

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    Avro York I Technical Specifications

    Service Year: 1944
    Type: Four-Engined Heavy Transport / Airliner Aircraft
    National Origin: United Kingdom
    Manufacturer(s): Avro - United Kingdom / Victory Aircraft - Canada
    Production Total: 259

    Structural (Crew Space, Dimensions and Weights)

    Operating Crew: 4
    Length: 78.41 feet (23.9 meters)
    Width: 102.03 feet (31.10 meters)
    Height: 16.40 feet (5.00 meters)

    Weight (Empty): 40,014 lb (18,150 kg)
    Weight (MTOW): 66,139 lb (30,000 kg)

    Installed Power and Standard Day Performance

    Engine(s): 4 x Rolls-Royce Merlin 24 liquid-cooled engines developing 1,280 horsepower each.

    Maximum Speed: 298 mph (480 kph; 259 knots)
    Maximum Range: 2,983 miles (4,800 km)
    Service Ceiling: 22,999 feet (7,010 meters; 4.36 miles)
    Rate-of-Climb: 820 feet-per-minute (250 m/min)

    Armament / Mission Payload


    Global Operators / Customers

    Australia; Argentina; Canada; France; Iran; Lebanon; South Africa; United Kingdom

    Model Variants (Including Prototypes)

    Type 685 - Model Designation; four prototypes completed to standard.

    York C.I - Definitive military transport; 208 completed.

    York C.II - One-off prototype fitting Bristol Hercules engines.

    York Mk.I - Civilian market passenger/cargo hauler; 44 examples completed.