Staff Writer (Updated: 7/29/2016):
The turbojet engine is largely credited to the British and Frank Whittle but other nations evolved their own designs at about the same time in history. Germany was one such nation with patents and prototypes emerging during the 1930s - BMW and Jumo would become two of its major contributors players heading into World War 2 (1939-1945). With new, more refined turbojet engine models becoming available, the RLM (German Air Ministry) charged the Messerschmitt and Heinkel concerns with development of a new military-minded airframe to be powered by jet propulsion. Due to the limited thrust output of these new engines, two engines became the accepted norm for all viable future jet fighter designs.
Messerschmitt and Heinkel submitted their designs to the RLM in June of 1939 as "Projekt 1065" and "He 280" respectively. German authorities favored the Messerschmitt design over the competing Heinkel endeavor but still saw value in further developing the He 280 alongside the P.1065 and thusly, funding was allotted for both submissions. First flight of the He 280 was on April 2nd, 1941 becoming the world's first turbojet-powered military fighter aircraft in the world to fly. The Heinkel product followed its earlier He 178 experimental prototype into aviation history, the He 178 being the first jet-powered aircraft ever to fly back on August 27th, 1939.
During March of 1940, Messerschmitt was awarded a government contract for four aircraft of which three would become flight test models and the other a static test article under the designation of "Me 262" and the name of "Schwalbe" (translating to "Swallow"). The initial design called for use of straight main wing assemblies but weight and thrust issues with the expected BMW powerplants forced engineers to adopted a pseudo-swept-wing arrangement rather than redesign the entire aircraft. Additionally, the original design saw the engines buried in each straight wing assembly as opposed to the largely accepted vision of the Me 262 with its underslung nacelles. It was this wing revision that introduced - or rather forced - the heavy, large engines to reside in underwing nacelles away from the aircraft structure. This had the beneficial effect of allowing unrestricted access to the engine during testing and service while also facilitating engine replacement. The changes also benefitted the overall design aerodynamically to an extent by producing a more streamlined form with less frontal drag. The undercarriage was of a "tail-dragger" arrangement to keep the fighter's construction and operation simple. The arrangement included two single-wheeled landing gear legs leading a single-wheeled tail wheel at rear. All legs were retractable under the aircraft.
Due to delays in both the BMW and Jumo jet engines, the Me 262 prototype airframe was fitted with a Jumo 210Ga 12-cylinder liquid-cooled engine of 750 horsepower output managing a two-bladed wooden propeller. This allowed Messerschmitt engineers to, at the very least, test out some facets of their new design without the need to delay the program by waiting for the proper turbojet engines to pass their own testing regimens. The subsequent work on the airframe produced the "Me 262V1" prototype which began conducting ground running trials during April of 1941. It eventually went into the air on April 18th, netting an airspeed of 261 miles per hour without turbojet support. The flight lasted all of eighteen minutes and proved the aircraft sound in terms of handling and airflow. The aircraft allowed for twenty-three total flights to be had - a critical period of development for Messerschmitt engineers despite the lack of true turbojets being fitted.
BMW 003 series turbojet engines finally arrived for November 1941 and these were quickly run and then added to the Me 262 airframe. The first true jet-powered Me 262 went airborne for the first time on March 25th, 1942 though the Jumo piston engine was still retained for safety. The flight proved something of a failure when both engines flamed out, the pilot able to direct his heavy aircraft - under the power of the sole piston engine - back down to the runway. The exercise forced a rewrite of the BMW 003 engines which produced the new 003A designation and testing of this engine began in October of 1943.
With the work on the BMW engine ongoing, the Me 262 was outfitted with the alternative Junkers Jumo 004 turbojet model instead. The switch added additional thrust output that the 003 lacked and, it was hoped, would benefit the Me 262 airframe. By this time, the original Jumo 004 had been revised along the lines of using far less war material in its construction which introduced weaknesses in its design - the changes begat the 004B engine designation. The Jumo engines were installed into the second (Me 262V2) and third (Me 262V3) Me 262 airframes for testing which forced a modification of the existing engine nacelles (originally intended for the BMW turbojets). Additionally, the vertical tail surface was enlarged to compensate with the changed airflow.
With its Jumo engines fitted, Me 262V3 went airborne on July 18th, 1942, becoming the first of the line to fly solely on the intended jet propulsion arrangement. The aircraft, requiring a great deal of runway length to get airborne, ultimately managed a top speed of 375 miles per hour during this twelve minute stint, reaching an altitude of about 6,000 feet in the process. Additional testing during subsequent flights revealed nothing detrimental about the product - amazing considering the technological complexity inherent in the jet-powered fighter design. One of the key changes instituted was in a revised wing structure which officially granted the Me 262 airframe a fully-swept wing profile. By now, speeds in testing had reached 450 miles per hour. Despite its designation, Me 262V2 actually followed V3 into the air on a first flight during October 1942.
Progress proved such that two more prototypes - V4 and V5 - were ordered by German high command to be followed by fifteen preproduction series aircraft, this despite ongoing development and the generally unreliable, low-powered engines at play. V1 and V4 were eventually damaged beyond repair, V2 was lost (its pilot killed) during a dive attempt, and V3 was destroyed in an Allied bombing raid. V5 was the first version to introduce the tricycle undercarriage arrangement - against Messerschmitt's wishes and at the behest of Galland while further backed by Luftwaffe chiefs. The move was intended to improve ground running for the pilot as well as take-offs. The nose leg would feature as a consistent weakness for the life of the aircraft. V5 was also eventually damaged during testing and not repaired.
When famous German aviator Adolph Galland first flew Me 262V4, he was so impressed that he returned to his superiors and pushed for large-scale manufacture of the type (inherent limitations of the design aside). With rumors of the British undertaking a similar jet-powered fighter project, the Luftwaffe agreed with Galland and the Me 262 received the needed priority for mass production. The official production charge occurred in June of 1943 with the ambitious manufacture rate of sixty Me 262 fighters per month. This charge forced Messerschmitt engineers to find quick solutions to ongoing issues - cockpit pressurization and an ejection seat were still on the to-do list.
Me 262V6 was used as a preproduction quality mount and fitted all-new engine nacelles with the latest Jumo 004B-0 engines then available. Weapons were not yet fitted. In November of 1943, V6 was used to display the awesomeness of the Me 262 fighter design before Adolph Hitler himself. Hitler was so enamored by the display that he suggested the fighter be used in the tactical bomber role, giving rise to a fighter-bomber form (the "Sturmvogel" or "Stormbird") for which Messerschmitt was not completely ready to undertake with the compact delivery schedule. Nevertheless, the promise was secured that the Me 262 could fulfill the fast bomber role which fell into the plans by Hitler to use these aircraft in a counter-punch role against key Allied fronts as a shock instrument - a "Blitz Bomber". Prototype V6 crashed in March of 1944 with the loss of its pilot.
A cleaned-up canopy (the small sliding window gone) greeted preproduction model Me 262V7 and a pressurized cabin was finally added. The Jumo engines used were finally production-quality forms which now promised a near-finalized look to the German aircraft. After over a dozen test flights, V7 was too lost in a fatal crash in May of 1944.
Me 262V8 was finished with the proposed armament of 4 x 30mm MK 108 series cannons in the nose. A new canopy was also later installed with improved vision. Testing of the V8 and its guns revealed problems all their own forcing a revision of the feed mechanism - though jamming of these guns (brought about by violent maneuvers of the aircraft) was never truly solved by the end of the war. Ammunition counts for the large-caliber weapons were restricted by necessity as internal volume was at a premium within the Me 262 airframe. V8 went airborne in March of 1944 but was later lost in October of that same year during a landing exercise gone wrong. Despite Hitler's insistence on a jet-powered fighter, Messerschmitt engineers continued to further the Me 262 as a fighter first - particular when word of the new Boeing B-29 "Superfortress" heavy bomber began to reach German intelligence circles.
Me 262V9 was given several advanced physical changes and used for high-speed testing and other test roles beyond that. It first flew during January of 1944 - before V8 - and managed its own collection of successful (and unsuccessful) flights during its time aloft. Me 262V10 was delayed by the lack of engines and did not fly until April 1944. It was then used to trial bomb testing as Hitler's prized fighter-bomber.
Program Challenges and Product Limitations
The Me 262 fighter initiative faced many challenges in its run to becoming the German fighter that would change the war. The Allies were hard at work on their own advanced fighter concepts which would have given the Me 262 a run for its money - no longer the sole, untouchable jet fighter in the skies over Europe. Additionally, the Junkers Jumo jet engines required for the product were very temperamental and largely unreliable which worsened mass production promises. The engine was also the powerplant of choice for another championed German jet aircraft - the Arado Ar 234 "Blitz" bomber - a design falling more in line with Hitler's fighter-bomber vision over the battlefield. As such stocks of the engine were committed to that Arado program as well.
As a war weapon, the Me 262 was very limited by the very infancy of its inherent technology and those existing technologies brought together - from the engines and guns to operating speeds and advanced form. Additionally, skilled workers and restricted war material were a requirement with such an advanced aircraft - further complicating the rise of the Me 262 as the standard German frontline fighter in a war effort that was hampered by the constant Allied day and night bombing raids.
Production quality Me 262s were not available to the Luftwaffe until April of 1944 and the first stock numbered just sixteen aircraft. The numbers were strengthened some in May with seven more fighters arriving. By this time, the aircraft was reaching speeds of 540 miles per hour and capable of simply outrunning, out-diving, or out-climbing any known Allied fighter/interceptor. Its cannon armament could bring down a single bomber by way of a single burst of fire. Thusly, the Luftwaffe believed it truly had a thoroughbred on its hands suitable for changing Germany's war circumstance.
However, one final major hurdle still remained in getting the Me 262 into the air - suitably trained pilots. As such, airframes were set aside for conversion to a tandem two-seat form with the first arriving in July 1944 and the Luftwaffe arranged for a trials squadron to be formed.
The first Me 262 air kill of an opposing aircraft - a British de Havilland Mosquito - was recorded on July 26th, 1944. The first Me 262 loss to enemy fire followed on August 28th, 1944 when a pair of Republic P-47 Thunderbolts successfully downed the jet.
Hitler continued to insist on the Me 262's development along the fighter-bomber route. This was driven home after a May 1944 meeting when he learned that the fighter-bomber form had not even been addressed, resulting in the immediately ordering of such an aircraft to take precedent over the fighter version without delay. The modifications to the existing air frame proved problematic but were nonetheless forced onto Messerschmitt designers. This included adding more fuel for extended operational ranges and the deletion of two of the four 30mm cannons to help offset an inherent imbalance of the airframe - particularly when the bombs were dropped and that weight lifted. The aircraft also received two hardpoints under the fuselage ahead of the main landing gear legs. Applicable arming and release equipment was run through the cockpit and wings. The changes produced a heavier aircraft with altered flight characteristics which would require an experienced and attentive pilot at the controls. Despite the shift to the fighter-bomber mold, development of the fighter form was allowed to proceed and every 20th Me 262 was set aside for the fighter role and even these were requested to be completed with some sort of bomb-carrying/release feature.