Rumpler C.IV Reconnaissance Biplane / Light Bomber Aircraft
The Rumpler C.IV found value with several world air forces for its time with production handled by both Rumpler and Pfalz during World War 1.
Authored By Dan Alex; Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com
Taking the C.III two-seat reconnaissance biplane of 1916 as a starting point, Rumpler Flugzeugwerke engineers developed an improved form of 1917 that became the Rumpler C.IV to fulfill the same over-battlefield role. Design was led by Dr. Edmund Rumpler and the primary operator became the German Empire though the Ottoman Air Force also relied on the type during the war years and post-war operators became Belgium, Switzerland and Yugoslavia.
Compared to the C.III, the C.IV was given a new Mercedes C.IVa engine and revised tail surfaces. This gave the modified aircraft good speed and an excellent service ceiling while at the same time providing the needed endurance for reconnaissance sorties. Its value to the Germans was such that it survived the whole of the war in its given role despite more modern offerings on hand. In practice there were few Allied warplanes that could intercept the C.IV which gave Rumpler aircrews a considerable advantage.
The aircraft was given a conventional biplane wings (over and under) with parallel struts creating a twin-bay arrangement. The engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller at the nose, was seated at the forward section of the aircraft just ahead of the pilot. The pilot sat under the upper wing mainplane with the observer / rear gunner in a cockpit just aft of the pilot. Both crewman were given open-air cockpits which meant environmental temperatures at high altitude could reach as low as -50C (-58F). Couple this with missions lasting between four and six hours and one can imagine the hardships endured by these flying men. The undercarriage was of a "tail-dragger" arrangement with the main legs wheeled. The tail unit sported a small-area, rounded vertical fin and low-set horizontal planes.
Performance from the Mercedes D.IVa water-cooled inline piston engine (260 horsepower) included a maximum speed of 107 miles per hour and a service ceiling of 21,000 feet.
Armament centered on 1 x 7.92mm LMG 08/15 machine gun in a fixed, forward-firing position over the nose, synchronized to fire through the spinning propeller blade and operated by the pilot. The rear gunner managed a 7.92mm Parabellum MG14 on a trainable (ring) mounting to help protect the aircraft's vulnerable "six" from trailing threats. In addition to the gun armament, the airframe was also cleared to carry 220lb of conventional drop stores allowing the biplane to take on Targets of Opportunity (ToO).
Early production models were fielded with large spinners at the propeller hub. This physical feature was deleted in later arrivals which improved drag qualities some and furthered performance even more. Manufacture was by both Rumpler and competitor Pfalz to which the latter variant was designated as "Pfalz C.I" (later "Rumpler C.IV (Pfal)") and carried different ailerons. Some 300 examples were produced by Pfalz for the war effort.
Beyond its service over the Western Front, the Rumpler C.IV series was deployed over the Italian Front and in the Middle East for its part in the war. The Rumpler 6B-2 was a floatplane (detailed elsewhere on this site) offshoot of the land-based C.IV series.