MANUFACTURER(S): State Factories - Soviet Union
OPERATORS: China; Egypt; Soviet Union; Syria
ACTION: Manually-Fed; Pin-Actuated; Repeat-Fire
LENGTH (OVERALL): 1,320 millimeters (51.97 inches)
LENGTH (BARREL): 1,225 millimeters (48.23 inches)
WEIGHT (UNLOADED): 123.46 pounds (56.00 kilograms)
MUZZLE VELOCITY: 690 feet-per-second (210 meters-per-second)
RATE-OF-FIRE: 25 rounds-per-minute
RANGE (EFFECTIVE): 8,500 feet (2,591 meters; 2,833 yards)
Detailing the development and operational history of the M1937 82mm (82-PM 37) Battalion Field Mortar.
Entry last updated on 7/23/2016.
Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com.
The Soviet Union made use of several different mortar types throughout World War 2 covering calibers of 50mm, 82mm, 120mm and even 160mm. The 82mm class itself included three distinct versions beginning with the 82-PM 36 (M1936) which was a copy of the excellent French Brandt 1927/33 model. To this was added the 82-PM 37 (M1937) and followed by the improved 82-PM 41 (M1941). The M1941 was itself modernized to cover its initial shortcomings as the 82-PM 43 (M1943).
Design of the M1937 was attributed to B.I Szayrin and closely followed the established lines of the M1936 into service, adopted (as its designation would suggest) in 1937. As a newer mortar design, the M1937 introduced recoil springs to alleviate stresses on the bipod during firing. Additionally, a lighter base plate was affixed for increased portability and a special safety device was installed to protect against the accidental dropping of two mortar projectiles down the launch tube. Overall, the M1937 retained the widely-accepted mortar form to include the launch tube, bipod structure and baseplate which could all be detached for transport. Controls for elevation and traverse were contained as levers along the bipod structure as was the integral sighting device. Elevation was limited from 45 to 75 degrees for indirect fire with traversal covering 6 to 15 degrees. The enter system weighed in at approximately 120lbs and fired a 7lb projectile of High Explosive filling (various other projectile types such as smoke and flare were also issued). A trained crew - usually three or four persons - could sustain a rate of fire of 25 to 30 rounds per minute. Muzzle velocity of each exiting projectile was listed at 690 feet per second out to ranges of 3,300 yards.
Versions of this mortar were captured by the invading Germans as redesignated as "8.2cm Granatwerfer 274/2(r)" which also joined captured M1936 and M1941/43 models ("8.2cm Granatwerfer 274(r)" and "8.2cm Granatwerfer 274/3(r)"). The M1937 was fielded by Red Army forces alongside the previous M1936 models and the upcoming M1941/43 models due to the dire Soviet need. Beyond its use by the Red Army, the M1937 was adopted by the militaries of China (as the "Type 53"), Egypt (as the "Helwan M-69") and Syria (as the "PM-37").