The Heckler & Koch PSG-1 semi-automatic sniper rifle was introduced in 1972 and primarily marketed towards police and security forces as well as interested military parties. The success of the base HK G3 Battle Rifle of 1959 naturally allowed the gun series to broaden itself and fulfill a variety of battlefield roles. The PSG-1 series was developed as a precision repeat-fire weapon system allowing for quick engagement of targets through accuracy at range. The semi-automatic nature of the weapon allowed quick successive shots against a single target or multiple threats. Design work on the PSG-1 began in the early 1970s and production (still ongoing as of 2012) was from the Heckler & Koch GmbH brand label.
At its core, the PSG-1 is internally the same as the HK G3 rifle before it including its roller-delayed blowback operation and 7.62x51mm NATO chambering. However, the PSG-1s overall appearance and available accessories completely revamp the weapons look to that of a more accurized killing machine. Only the receiver truly shares an outward resemblance to the original service rifle. The internal bolt assembly is designed to be silent in its closing operation to help conceal the firer's position during clandestine assignments. The stock is padded with a noticeable cheekpiece and shoulder pad that are both adjustable to suit the operator. The pistol grip is of a very ergonomic design with an oversized base to ensure a solid hold. The trigger unit is conventionally set ahead of the angled pistol grip while the trigger itself is adjustable. Unlike the 20-round capacity straight magazine of the G3, the PSG-1 primarily is photographed with a short 5-round magazine though a 10- and 20-round count is also available (as is support for a 50-round "drum" magazine). The forestock is a long-running plastic hand guard that covers both the bottom-mounted barrel and top-mounted cylinder within. The barrel protrudes a good distance away from the forestock and sports no muzzle devices. Unlike the G3, the PSG-1 makes use of a longer, free-floating barrel that has polygonal rifling within. There are no backup iron sights of any kind, its operators relying solely on a standard-issue (initially the Hensoldt 6x24 power ZF6x42PSG1) series scope set upon a single mounting base. The adjustable scope sports illuminated crosshairs for accuracy and operation in low light. An optional tripod can be fitted under the forestock for stabilization and supporting the front end of the rifle. A silencer is also optional for clandestine work. The PSG-1 is chambered for the 7.62x51mm NATO cartridge and is listed with a muzzle velocity of approximately 2,850 feet per second. Effective range is 600 to 800 meters depending on optics, training and experience. overall weight is nearly 16lbs with a 48-inch overall length and 25.6-inch length barrel.
The PSG-1 has since been developed into one notable major production variant. The original PSG-1 product of 1972 was known simply as the "PSG-1". In 2006, the PSG-1A1 was unleashed with a revised charging handle and a new Schmidt & Bender 3-12x50 Police Marksman II series scope for targeting up to 800 meters. A new folding stock was also introduced to help make for a more compact traveling instrument.
Once in practice, the PSG-1 certainly proved a highly accurate and ergonomically comfortable rifle to fire. However, the system was expensive to produce and thus expensive for militaries and police forces to procure in number. Additionally, the precision nature of some of the components made the PSG-1 somewhat fragile in-the-field, particularly for the military. Nevertheless, the PSG-1 went on to see use by West German police. Other operators then included Albania, India, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Netherlands, Pakistan, South Korea, United Kingdom and the United States. The PSG-1 in American service is in use by elements of the FBI. The US Army trialed the PSG-1 system in the early 1980s, eventually favoring their M21 and M40 sniper systems instead.
To remedy the faults of the original PSG-1, a "militarized" form appeared in 1997 that was both lighter in weight and cheaper to manufacture. This became the MSG-90 which introduced a shorter free-floating barrel, reworked shoulder stock and a Weaver rail system. Internally, the rifle function remains the same as does the chambering though, externally, the MSG series shares an appearance more akin to the original G3 battle rifle than the PSG-1 sniper. The MSG-90A1 mark introduces a threaded muzzle that accepts a suppressor. This version of the PSG-1 has since seen use in France, Indonesia, Lithuania, Malaysia, Mexico (under license by SEDENA), Norway and South Korea and is intended as a more robust, cost-effective alternative to the original PSG-1.