The Barrett M107 began life as the Barrett M95 bolt-action operated sniper rifle (under the US Army designation of "XM107"). The weapon was placed into competition for review by the US Army. During competition, the US Army evaluated its heavy caliber sniper rifle needs and decided against pursuing the XM107 design, instead focusing its already invested XM107 dollars into purchases of the proven semi-automatic, recoil-operated Barrett M82 series. These M82 systems were therefore afforded the designation of "M107" and otherwise represent only a slightly different version of the excellent Barrett design. Therefore, it is similarly developed around the 0.50 caliber 12.7x99mm Browning (50 Browning / .50 BMG) NATO machine gun cartridge firing from a semi-automatic action with rotating bolt function.
The M107 anti-material rifle has been adopted by the US Army and is similar to the US Marine Corps Barrett M82A1 .50 caliber sniper system. The M107 enables Army snipers to accurately engage material targets (and personnel in extreme circumsances) out to a distance of 1500 to 2000 meters. The weapon is designed to effectively engage and defeat materiel targets such as aircraft (parked), communications targets, computers, intelligence sites, radar sites, ammunition depots, oil stores as well as lightly armored vehicles.
In a counter-sniper role, the M107 system offers long-range standoff distances and increased terminal effect against snipers using smaller caliber weapons. The complete system includes the rifle itself, a detachable ten-round box magazine, a variable-power day optical sight, a hard transport case, a tactical soft case, cleaning and maintenance equipment, a detachable sling, an adjustable bipod and operator/maintenance manuals. The Army plans to modify future M107s with the addition of a suppressor to greatly reduce flash, noise and blast signatures. The standard M107 is fielded with the Leupold 4.5x14 Vari-X scope.
The weapon is more formally known in its long-form guise as the "Long Range Sniper Rifle, Caliber .50, M107".