Like other military powers of the World War 1 period (1914-1918), the Russian Army adopted a "stick grenade" design as an anti-infantry measure. In Imperial Russian Army service, this became the "Model 1914", a weapon designed by Vladimir Rdultovsky and a modification of the earlier Model 1912 model. The grenade carried either a Picric Acid or TNT filling depending on the production model and was used for decades before a successor was eventually adopted.
The basic function of the Model 1914 relied on a 4- to 5-second timed-fuse delay. The "stick" nature of the grenade, popular during the World War 1 period, allowed the base to be held as a handle in one hand and the safety catch to be operated with the other. Once the catch was released, the grenade was active and could be thrown - the safety pin releasing when the grenade went airborne. Overall length of the grenade reached 235mm with a diameter of 45mm while weight was between 500 grams and 780 grams depending on production model.
There were three primary forms of the series: the basic concussion grenade was the Model 1914 and this was followed by the dimensionally larger and slightly heavier Model 1917 which was developed as a chemical weapon (releasing Chloropicrin around the detonation area). The Model 1914/30 was an interwar development essentially taking the Model 1914 design and switching to a TNT filling. The grenade could further be converted to a fragmentation weapon by applying a thin metal sleeve - though at the expense of added weight.
The Model 1914 and its derivatives saw combat service during World War 1 (up until the Russian departure in 1917) and throughout World War 2 (1939-1945), this now under the Soviet flag due to the large stocks that remained in circulation. Captured examples (mainly Model 194/30 versions) by the Germans were redesignated to HG 336(r).
The Model 1914 was succeeded in Red Army service by the RGD-33 (fragmentation stick) and RGD-5 (fragmentation egg) types though it managed to see service into the 1980s in a reduced training role.
Manufacturing State Factories - Soviet Union
Imperial Russia; Soviet Union
- Area Effect
- Specialized Role
235 mm (9.25 in)
235 mm (9.25 in)
1.10 lb (0.50 kg)
Safety Pin; Timed-Fuze
Model 1914 - Base Series Designation; original production models with Picric filling.
Model 1917 - Chemical grenade.
Model 1914/30 - Model of 1930; TNT filling.
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