Military Factory logo

Enfield Pattern 1856

United Kingdom (1856)

Detailing the development and operational history of the Enfield Pattern 1856 Rifle-Musket Long Gun.

 Entry last updated on 9/12/2016; Authored by Staff Writer; Content ©

Basic Specifications
National Flag Graphic
United Kingdom
Year: 1856
Type: Rifle-Musket Long Gun
Manufacturer(s): Royal Small Arms Factory / Enfield Lock - UK

The Enfield Pattern 1856 was nothing more than a shorter, two-banded form of the original, full-length Pattern of 1853.

The British Enfield Pattern 1856 followed the original Pattern 1853 into service in an effort to produce a more "infantry-friendly" long gun. The original forms were effective man-killers to be sure however their primary physical restriction lay in their length which made them unwieldy for late-19 Century warfare. Now that barrel rifling was permeating long guns and infantry warfare was done at closer ranges than before, the length of barrels could be reduced to an extent (at the cost of range). This led to many full-length guns being cut down to more manageable sizes - particularly valued by forward-operating scouts and mounted infantry.

The Pattern 1856 was reduced by some six inches when compared to the earlier Pattern 1853. The barrel now measured 33 inches long. It continued use of the .577 ball as its ammunition and operated from a percussion cap action. The primary distinguishing mark of the line (beyond its obvious reduced length) was its two-banded design, these metal bands used to clasp the wooden stock to the barrel assembly and form a rigid, robust framework. A ram rod was contained under the barrel in the usual way and the action took place near the rear of the gun. The shoulder stock was integrated to the gun in traditional fashion with the grip area formed between it and the forend. Underslung slings allowed for a strap to be affixed and eased transporting of the rifle when on-the-march.

Both sides of the American Civil War (1861-1865) procured the Pattern 1856 and, of course, the British Empire fielded it in number - typically issued to its rank of sergeants and skirmish troops. Manufacture was by way of Enfield of England and Tower Armories.

Any available statistics for the Enfield Pattern 1856 Rifle-Musket Long Gun are showcased in the areas immediately below. Categories include basic specifications covering initial year of service, country-of-origin and manufacture(s) involved in bringing the weapon to market. Other qualities showcased are related to physical values such as the internal action, available calibers / chamberings, weight and lengths. Global operators are also presented in A-to-Z format as are any model variants available to the series.
Supported Mission Types
Frontline Infantry
Special Forces
Close Quarters Battle
Designated Marksman/Sharpshooter
Area Effect/Suppression
Indirect Fire
Airspace Denial
Attachment Weapon
Internal Design, Weight and Dimensions
Firing Action: Percussion Lock; Single-Shot
Available Caliber(s): .577 Minie ball paper cartidge
Ammunition Count / Feed: Single-Shot
Weight (Empty): 8.82 lb (4.00 kg)
Overall Length: 1,398 mm (55.04 in)
Barrel Length: 838 mm (32.99 in)
Sighting Assist: Adjustable Rear; Fixed Front

Operating Performance
Muzzle Velocity: 850 ft/sec (259 m/sec)
Rate-of-Fire (RoF): 3 rounds-per-minute (rpm)
Typical Range: 2,500 feet (762 m; 833 yd)

Operators List
Brazil; Confederate States; Japan; United Kingdom; United States

Model Variants
• Pattern 1856 - Base Series Designation; based on the model of 1853.