The American Civil War (1861-1865) was the first true modern war where mobility, aerial reconnaissance (by way of tethered observation balloons), and field artillery proved just as important as the foot soldier. However, victory still lay in the hands of the infantry warfighter and it was the tools given to him that made the victory possible. Gone were the cumbersome flintlock systems of old and, in its place, arrived the percussion cap system of operation which did well in adverse weather conditions. Cartridged bullets were also beginning to take root and all this helped to make the Civil War as bloody an affair as any before it. In the end, the Union held out for the ultimate victory, propped up by its massive industry and manpower, but it would take decades before the wounds of the conflict could be closed.