Aircraft / Aviation Vehicles & Artillery Infantry Arms Warships & Submarines Military Ranks Military Pay Chart (2024)
Naval Warfare

INS Shishumar (S44)

Diesel-Electric Attack Submarine [ 1986 ]

INS Shishumar S44 leads her group of four-strong diesel-electric attack submarines serving the modern Indian Navy.

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 01/08/2019 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.

For decades since the Cold War period (1947-1991), German shipbuilding has offered some form of diesel-electric attack submarine for export to interested parties. The line has evolved considerably from the Type 201 (Germany's first post-World War 2 submarine) of the 1960s, to the Type 214 of the 2000s. In-between was the Type 209/1100 which went on to be adopted by many foreign navies - from Argentina and Brazil to South Africa and Turkey.

India became another taker which committed to four of the type in a December 1981 agreement with Germany and has operated these under the "Shishumar-class" name. These were longer and displaced heavier than other Type 209s in the series while also having an integrated crew escape sphere. However, after some time with the boats, an option for two additional boats (though initially agreed upon in 1984) was ultimately not exercised by the Indian Navy due to changing doctrine/requirements. Instead three French-originated Scorpene-class boats were chosen for procurement in 1999.

The boats of the Shishumar-class taken into service became lead-ship INS Shishumar (S44), INS Shankush (S45), INS Shalki (S46), and INS Shankul (S47). The first two boats were built in Germany by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (of Kiel) with the last two built at the Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Ltd shipyard in India (these from premade components delivered from Germany). All remain in active service as of this writing (January 2019) and homeport out of Mumbai.

In terms of the diesel-electric submarine classes available to the modern Indian Navy, the Shishumar-class falls behind both the newer Kalvari-class and quantitatively larger Sindhughosh-class boats (both detailed elsewhere on this site). While the Sindhughosh boats have greater displacement (3,400 tons), the Kalvari-class (2,000 tons) is of more modern design and has, on paper, directly succeeded the Shishumar-class. It represents a planned six-strong group which has seen three already completed, three under construction and one in active service (2019).©MilitaryFactory.com
In regards to the Shishumar-class, lead boat INS Shishumar (S44) was commissioned on September 22nd, 1986. She displaces 1,450 tons surfaced and 1,850 tons submerged and has an overall length of 211 feet, a beam of 21 feet, and a draught of 20 feet. Installed power is from 4 x Diesel-electric motors outputting 2,400 horsepower each, 1 x Siemens electric motor of 4,600 horsepower output, 4 x Siemens alternators of 2,400 horsepower each, and a single shaft astern. Maximum surfaced speeds reach 11 knots while submerged travel caps at 22 knots. Range is out to a healthy 8,000 nautical miles. The hull has been tested to depths of 850 feet (260 meters) giving the boat a strong deep-water capability.

Aboard is a crew complement of forty that includes eight officers (the entire crew can escape via the integrated emergency escape sphere - which is pressure rated to the exact specifications as the hull proper, holds an 8-hour oxygen supply, and its own communications system). Armament is 8 x 533mm (21") torpedo tubes at the bow and carries six to fourteen reloads (from the German wire-guided, active-passive AEG-SUT Mod 1 torpedo family). An external mine-carrying/dispensing capability is also built-in (a standard of the German boat design series). Up to 24 naval mines can be hauled in a single sortie.

Its design is largely standard and conventional for the period. The hull is well-contoured as expected and the sail sits at midships. The tailplane arrangement is of a basic cruciform pattern with the propeller unit extended out beyond the planes. The dive planes are positioned on the hull as opposed to the sail. A single, central bulkhead is used internally.

Onboard electronics consist of the Calypso surface-search radar, the CSU 83 active/passive hull-mounted sonar, the DUUX 5 passive ranging sonar, the Librascope Mk.1 Fire-Control System (FCS), AR700/Sea Sentry ESM, and C303 acoustic decoy system.

In 1999, Shishumar began a mid-life upgrade with new French sonar and an Indian data processing suite. Sister boats followed in modernization. In September of 2018, Thyssenkrupp of Germany was awarded a $151M program to refit the Indian submarine. The class will now be able to support the American Harpoon Block II anti-ship missile series as a standard weapon fit.©MilitaryFactory.com
Note: The above text is EXCLUSIVE to the site www.MilitaryFactory.com. It is the product of many hours of research and work made possible with the help of contributors, veterans, insiders, and topic specialists. If you happen upon this text anywhere else on the internet or in print, please let us know at MilitaryFactory AT gmail DOT com so that we may take appropriate action against the offender / offending site and continue to protect this original work.


Service Year

India national flag graphic

In Active Service.


INS Shishumar (S44); INS Shankush (S45); INS Shalki (S46); INS Shankul (S47); Cancelled Boat #5; Cancelled Boat #6

National flag of India India
(OPERATORS list includes past, present, and future operators when applicable)
Submerged Attack
Traveling under the surface to search, track, and / or engage or reconnoiter areas.
Offshore Operation
Activities conducted near shorelines in support of allied activities.
Maritime Patrol
Active patroling of vital waterways and maritime areas; can also serve as local deterrence against airborne and seaborne threats.
Fleet Support
Serving in support (either firepower or material) of the main surface fleet in Blue Water environments.

211.2 ft
64.37 m
21.3 ft
6.49 m
19.7 ft
6.00 m

Installed Power: 4 x MTU 12V 492 AZ80 GA31L diesel-electric motors developing 2,400 horsepower each; 1 x Siemens electric motor generating 4,600 horsepower; 4 x Siemens alternators; 1 x Shaft.
Surface Speed
11.0 kts
(12.7 mph)
Submerged Speed
22.0 kts
(25.3 mph)
7,999 nm
(9,205 mi | 14,814 km)

kts = knots | mph = miles-per-hour | nm = nautical miles | mi = miles | km = kilometers

1 kts = 1.15 mph | 1 nm = 1.15 mi | 1 nm = 1.85 km
8 x Torpedo tubes with 6 to 14 x torpedo reloads.

24 x Naval mines (externally-mounted).

Class will have UGM-84L Harpoon (Block II) anti-ship missile support after refit.

Supported Types

Graphical image of an aircraft aerial torpedo
Graphical image of an aircraft anti-ship missile
Graphical image of a naval mine

(Not all weapon types may be represented in the showcase above)

Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War period
Military lapel ribbon for early warship designs
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon representing modern aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the Attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Russian Invasion of Ukraine
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2

Ribbon graphics not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective naval campaigns / operations / periods.

Images Gallery

1 / 1
Image of the INS Shishumar (S44)
Image from the Indian Navy.

Disclaimer | Privacy Policy | Cookies

2024 Military Pay Chart Military Ranks DoD Dictionary Conversion Calculators Military Alphabet Code Military Map Symbols

The "Military Factory" name and MilitaryFactory.com logo are registered ® U.S. trademarks protected by all applicable domestic and international intellectual property laws. All written content, illustrations, and photography are unique to this website (unless where indicated) and not for reuse/reproduction in any form. Material presented throughout this website is for historical and entertainment value only and should not to be construed as usable for hardware restoration, maintenance, or general operation. We do not sell any of the items showcased on this site. Please direct all other inquiries to militaryfactory AT gmail.com. No A.I. was used in the generation of this content; site is 100% curated by humans.

Part of a network of sites that includes GlobalFirepower, a data-driven property used in ranking the top military powers of the world, WDMMA.org (World Directory of Modern Military Aircraft), WDMMW.org (World Directory of Modern Military Warships), SR71blackbird.org, detailing the history of the world's most iconic spyplane, and MilitaryRibbons.info, cataloguing military medals and ribbons. Special Interest: RailRoad Junction, the locomotive encyclopedia.

©2023 www.MilitaryFactory.com • All Rights Reserved • Content ©2003-2023 (20yrs)