Like many other leading naval powers of the world, the Russian Navy fields a healthy collection of destroyer warships - about thirteen in all - behind the United States (65), Japan (36) and China (29). Such ship types are built to be fast in the water and reach out to far-off destinations on internal fuel and can be used as independent solutions / deterrents or as part of the main fighting force. Flexibility-in-service is expanded by the type's ability to feature a flexible armament suite which allows the ships to tackle just about any at-sea threat - be it in the air, on the water, or under it.
Russian Navy Destroyers
The Russian Navy currently (2018) operates three distinct batches of destroyer warships - the Kashin-class, Udaloy-class and Sovremennyy-class. The Sovremennyy-class (Project 956) numbered twenty-one ships when it was ultimately adopted and finally completed though only three of her number are in active service today (2018): Bystryy, Nastoychivyy and Admiral Ushakov commissioned in 1989, 1993 and 1994, respectively (Burnyy is said to be undergoing modernization as of this writing, 2018). All displace in the 7,940 ton range. Bystryy is assigned to the Pacific Fleet, Nastoychivyy to the Baltic Fleet and Admiral Ushakov to the Northern Fleet.
All were built by Severnaya Verf 190 of St. Petersburg.
The Sovremennyy-class was used to succeed the aging Kashin-class but was itself succeeded by the Lider-class. China adopted the design as well in the late-1990s/early-2000s.
The submarine was the bread-and-butter instrument of the Soviet Navy throughout the Cold War but World War 2 (1939-1945) continue to influence post-war doctrine for all sides and revealed the value of surprise amphibious landings against an enemy. As such, the Soviet Navy was continually drawn up to include gun-laden warships to support such actions in far-away lands. New warships were taken from drawing boards to shipyards, including the Sovremennyy-class, and the "multi-mission" mindset for these ships soon was introduced to help evolve the line and keep them on par with American counterparts in the West.
As such, the group is designed for several key operating roles including airspace denial, anti-ship sorties and Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW). Displacement is 6,600 tons under standard load and 8,500 tons under full load. Dimensions include a running length of 511.9 feet with a beam of 56.8 feet and a draught of 21.3 feet. Power is from 4 x Boiler units feeding 2 x Steam turbines producing 100,000 horsepower to 2 x Shafts. 2 x Turbo-generators and 2 x Diesel generators complete the propulsion scheme.
The warships are able to range out to an impressive 16,000 miles and reach speeds nearing 33 knots in open sea under ideal conditions.
Aboard is a crew of 350 personnel. An air arm is part of the crew for the sole helipad can support a single Kamov Ka-27 "Helix" (or similar) navy helicopter equipped for Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW), anti-ship or at-sea replenishment roles.
The series has a typical Soviet-era design appearance as they emerged in the "pre-stealth" days towards the end of the Cold War (1947-1991). They showcase high bow lines with a sweeping maindeck. The forecastle and stern are home to turreted main guns. The bridge and enclosed mainmast are integrated into the high-forward superstructure with a gap set between it and the squared-off smoke funnel at midships. Atop a platform rear of the funnel is a lattice aftermast reaching high into the sky. Aft of the funnel is a helipad atop a stepped superstructure section. To either side of the bridge superstructure are quad surface-to-surface tube missile launchers featured prominently.
The class is equipped with no fewer than three navigation radars, an air target acquisition radar, fire-control radars / directors and an air-defense fire-control radar. Both active and passive sonar systems are carried as are full decoy launching systems.
The armament suite includes 2 x 130mm AK-130-MR-184 twin-gunned turreted main guns forward and aft, 4 x 30mm AK-630 Close-In Weapon Systems (CIWSs), 2 x 4 P-270 (SS-N-22 "Sunburn") "Moskit" surface-to-surface / anti-ship missiles, and 2 x 24 Shtil (SA-N-12 "Grizzly") surface-to-air missile launchers. 4 x 533mm torpedo tubes (in two twin-tubed emplacements) can be used against surface and undersea threats. 2 x RBU-1000 300mm Anti-Submarine ROCket launchers are carried for ranged anti-submarine work.
The class constitutes two forms: the original Project 956 ships and the follow-on Project 956A with its improved 3M80M anti-ship missile fit. The Chinese Navy operates a third branch in the Project 956EM design. China has adopted four total ships of the class from 1994 into 2004. All remain in service.
For the Russian Navy, many of the class have been decommissioned with the end of the Cold War (many were removed from service in 1998). Burnyy is said to be receiving a modernization and major overhaul to keep her a viable surface combatant for the near-future. Bespokoynyy was saved from the scrap heap to serve as a floating museum ship at Kronstadt.