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Military Dictionary (Letter Group E)


All official U.S. DoD military terms, and their definitions, beginning with the letter E.


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The earliest time expected for a special operations tactical element and its supporting platform to depart the staging or marshalling area together en route to the operations area. Also called EALT. (JP 3-05.2)
A day, relative to C-day, that is specified by a planner as the earliest date when a unit, a resupply shipment, or replacement personnel can be accepted at a port of debarkation during a deployment. Used with the latest arrival data, it defines a delivery window for transportation planning. Also called EAD. See also latest arrival date.
An antireconnaissance satellite weapon system.
See span of detonation (atomic demolition munition employment).
(*) Early notification of the launch or approach of unknown weapons or weapons carriers. Also called EW. See also attack assessment; tactical warning.
(*) The arrangement whereby nations agree, normally in peacetime, to identify a proportion of selected items of their war reserve stocks to be called for by specified NATO commanders.
(*) The process of making a satisfactory electrical connection between the structure, including the metal skin, of an object or vehicle, and the mass of the Earth, to ensure a common potential with the Earth. See also bonding.
(*) 1. A subdivision of a headquarters, i.e., forward echelon, rear echelon. 2. Separate level of command. As compared to a regiment, a division is a higher echelon, a battalion is a lower echelon. 3. A fraction of a command in the direction of depth to which a principal combat mission is assigned; i.e., attack echelon, support echelon, reserve echelon. 4. A formation in which its subdivisions are placed one behind another, with a lateral and even spacing to the same side.
(*) Movement of a unit from one position to another without discontinuing performance of its primary function. (DOD only) Normally, the unit divides into two functional elements (base and advance); and, while the base continues to operate, the advance element displaces to a new site where, after it becomes operational, it is joined by the base element.
The planned use of economic measures designed to influence the policies or actions of another state, e.g., to impair the war-making potential of a hostile power or to generate economic stability within a friendly power.
That quantity derived from a mathematical technique used to determine the optimum (lowest) total variable costs required to order and hold inventory.
(*) The total capacity of a nation to produce goods and services.
That share of the total economic capacity of a nation that can be used for the purposes of war.
That portion of the quantity of an item excess of the approved force retention level that has been determined will be more economical to retain for future peacetime issue in lieu of replacement of future issues by procurement. To warrant economic retention, items must have a reasonably predictable demand rate.
Aggressive use of economic means to achieve national objectives.
1. The physical or behavioral state of a system that results from an action, a set of actions, or another effect. 2. The result, outcome, or consequence of an action. 3. A change to a condition, behavior, or degree of freedom. (JP 3-0)
That damage necessary to render a target element inoperative, unserviceable, nonproductive, or uninhabitable.
US-owned foreign flagships that can be tasked by the Maritime Administration to support Department of Defense requirements when necessary. Also called EUSCS.
(*) 1. Escape from an aircraft by means of an independently propelled seat or capsule. 2. In air armament, the process of forcefully separating an aircraft store from an aircraft to achieve satisfactory separation.
(*) a. command ejection system — A system in which the pilot of an aircraft or the occupant of the other ejection seat(s) initiates ejection resulting in the automatic ejection of all occupants. b. command select ejection system — A system permitting the optional transfer from one crew station to another of the control of a command ejection system for automatic ejection of all occupants. c. independent ejection system — An ejection system which operates independently of other ejection systems installed in one aircraft. d. sequenced ejection system — A system which ejects the aircraft crew in sequence to ensure a safe minimum total time of escape without collision.
In naval mine warfare, a magnetic cable sweep in which the water forms part of the electric circuit.
(*) An explosive or pyrotechnic component that initiates an explosive, burning, electrical, or mechanical train and is activated by the application of electrical energy. Also called EED.
The ability of systems, equipment, and devices that utilize the electromagnetic spectrum to operate in their intended operational environments without suffering unacceptable degradation or causing unintentional degradation because of electromagnetic radiation or response. It involves the application of sound electromagnetic spectrum management; system, equipment, and device design configuration that ensures interference-free operation; and clear concepts and doctrines that maximize operational effectiveness. Also called EMC. See also electromagnetic spectrum; electromagnetic spectrum management; electronic warfare.
The deliberate radiation, re-radiation, alteration, suppression, absorption, denial, enhancement, or reflection of electromagnetic energy in a manner intended to convey misleading information to an enemy or to enemy electromagnetic-dependent weapons, thereby degrading or neutralizing the enemy’s combat capability. See also electronic warfare. (JP 3-13.4)
The resulting product of the power and time distribution, in various frequency ranges, of the radiated or conducted electromagnetic emission levels that may be encountered by a military force, system, or platform when performing its assigned mission in its intended operational environment. It is the sum of electromagnetic interference; electromagnetic pulse; hazards of electromagnetic radiation to personnel, ordnance, and volatile materials; and natural phenomena effects of lightning and precipitation static. Also called EME.
The impact of the electromagnetic environment upon the operational capability of military forces, equipment, systems, and platforms. It encompasses all electromagnetic disciplines, including electromagnetic compatibility and electromagnetic interference; electromagnetic vulnerability; electromagnetic pulse; electronic protection, hazards of electromagnetic radiation to personnel, ordnance, and volatile materials; and natural phenomena effects of lightning and precipitation static. Also called E3.
Action taken to protect personnel, facilities, and/or equipment by filtering, attenuating, grounding, bonding, and/or shielding against undesirable effects of electromagnetic energy. See also electronic warfare.
Any electromagnetic disturbance that interrupts, obstructs, or otherwise degrades or limits the effective performance of electronics and electrical equipment. It can be induced intentionally, as in some forms of electronic warfare, or unintentionally, as a result of spurious emissions and responses, intermodulation products, and the like. Also called EMI.
The intentional insertion of electromagnetic energy into transmission paths in any manner, with the objective of deceiving operators or of causing confusion. See also electronic warfare.
The deliberate radiation, reradiation, or reflection of electromagnetic energy for the purpose of preventing or reducing an enemy’s effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum, and with the intent of degrading or neutralizing the enemy’s combat capability. See also electromagnetic spectrum; electromagnetic spectrum management; electronic warfare.
The electromagnetic radiation from a strong electronic pulse, most commonly caused by a nuclear explosion that may couple with electrical or electronic systems to produce damaging current and voltage surges. Also called EMP. See also electromagnetic radiation. (JP 3-51)
Radiation made up of oscillating electric and magnetic fields and propagated with the speed of light. Includes gamma radiation, X-rays, ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation, and radar and radio waves.
Hazards caused by transmitter or antenna installation that generates electromagnetic radiation in the vicinity of ordnance, personnel, or fueling operations in excess of established safe levels or increases the existing levels to a hazardous level; or a personnel, fueling, or ordnance installation located in an area that is illuminated by electromagnetic radiation at a level that is hazardous to the planned operations or occupancy. Also called EMR hazards or RADHAZ.
The range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation from zero to infinity. It is divided into 26 alphabetically designated bands. See also electronic warfare.
Planning, coordinating, and managing joint use of the electromagnetic spectrum through operational, engineering, and administrative procedures. The objective of spectrum management is to enable electronic systems to perform their functions in the intended environment without causing or suffering unacceptable interference. See also electromagnetic spectrum. (JP 6-0)
The characteristics of a system that cause it to suffer a definite degradation (incapability to perform the designated mission) as a result of having been subjected to a certain level of electromagnetic environmental effects. Also called EMV.
See electronic warfare.
The transmission of imagery or imagery products by any electronic means. This includes the following four categories. a. primary imagery dissemination system — The equipment and procedures used in the electronic transmission and receipt of un-exploited original or near-original quality imagery in near real time. b. primary imagery dissemination — The electronic transmission and receipt of unexploited original or near-original quality imagery in near real time through a primary imagery dissemination system. c. secondary imagery dissemination system — The equipment and procedures used in the electronic transmission and receipt of exploited non-original quality imagery and imagery products in other than real or near real time. d. secondary imagery dissemination — The electronic transmission and receipt of exploited non-original quality imagery and imagery products in other than real or near real time through a secondary imagery dissemination system.
Technical and geolocation intelligence derived from foreign non-communications electromagnetic radiations emanating from other than nuclear detonations or radioactive sources. Also called ELINT. See also electronic warfare; foreign instrumentation signals intelligence; intelligence; signals intelligence. (JP 2-01)
The path traversed by electromagnetic waves that is not subject to reflection or refraction by the atmosphere.
(*) The controlled radiation of electromagnetic energy on friendly frequencies in a manner to protect the emissions of friendly communications and electronic systems against enemy electronic warfare support measures/signals intelligence without significantly degrading the operation of friendly systems.
Intentional radiation designed to be introduced into the devices or systems of potential enemies for the purpose of learning the functions and operational capabilities of the devices or systems.
See electronic warfare.
The detection, location, identification, and evaluation of foreign electromagnetic radiations. See also electromagnetic radiation; reconnaissance. (JP 3-51)
The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from their interception and study of noncommunications electromagnetic radiations, e.g., radar.
Any military action involving the use of electromagnetic and directed energy to control the electromagnetic spectrum or to attack the enemy. Also called EW. The three major subdivisions within electronic warfare are: electronic attack, electronic protection, and electronic warfare support. a. electronic attack. That division of electronic warfare involving the use of electromagnetic energy, directed energy, or antiradiation weapons to attack personnel, facilities, or equipment with the intent of degrading, neutralizing, or destroying enemy combat capability and is considered a form of fires. Also called EA. EA includes: 1) actions taken to prevent or reduce an enemy’s effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum, such as jamming and electromagnetic deception, and 2) employment of weapons that use either electromagnetic or directed energy as their primary destructive mechanism (lasers, radio frequency weapons, particle beams). b. electronic protection. That division of electronic warfare involving passive and active means taken to protect personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy employment of electronic warfare that degrade, neutralize, or destroy friendly combat capability. Also called EP. c. electronic warfare support. That division of electronic warfare involving actions tasked by, or under direct control of, an operational commander to search for, intercept, identify, and locate or localize sources of intentional and unintentional radiated electromagnetic energy for the purpose of immediate threat recognition, targeting, planning and conduct of future operations. Thus, electronic warfare support provides information required for decisions involving electronic warfare operations and other tactical actions such as threat avoidance, targeting, and homing. Also called ES. Electronic warfare support data can be used to produce signals intelligence, provide targeting for electronic or destructive attack, and produce measurement and signature intelligence. See also directed energy; electromagnetic spectrum. (JP 3-51)
Actions taken to integrate those frequencies used by electronic warfare systems into the overall frequency deconfliction process. See also electronic warfare. (JP 3-51)
The deliberate alteration or modification of electronic warfare (EW) or target sensing systems (TSS), or the tactics and procedures that employ them, in response to validated changes in equipment, tactics, or the electromagnetic environment. These changes may be the result of deliberate actions on the part of friendly, adversary or third parties; or may be brought about by electromagnetic interference or other inadvertent phenomena. The purpose of EW reprogramming is to maintain or enhance the effectiveness of EW and TSS equipment. EW reprogramming includes changes to self-defense systems, offensive weapons systems, and intelligence collection systems. See also electronic warfare. (JP 3-51)
See electronic warfare.
Intelligence other than signals intelligence derived from the optical monitoring of the electromagnetic spectrum from ultraviolet (0.01 micrometers) through far infrared (1,000 micrometers). Also called ELECTRO-OPTINT. See also intelligence; laser intelligence. (JP 2-0)
(*) The technology associated with those components, devices and systems which are designed to interact between the electromagnetic (optical) and the electric (electronic) state.
Three lines of data which define the location of a satellite in space. Also called ELSET.
An elevated causeway pier that provides a means of delivering containers, certain vehicles, and bulk cargo ashore without the lighterage contending with the surf zone. See also causeway. (JP 4-01.6)
(*) The vertical distance of a point or level on or affixed to the surface of the Earth measured from mean sea level. See also altitude.
See hypsometric tinting.
Acquisition of information from a person or group in a manner that does not disclose the intent of the interview or conversation. A technique of human source intelligence collection, generally overt, unless the collector is other than he or she purports to be.
Traffic for which movement requirements are submitted and space is assigned or allocated. Such traffic must meet eligibility requirements specified in Joint Travel Regulations for the Uniformed Services and publications of the Department of Defense and Military Departments governing eligibility for land, sea, and air transportation, and be in accordance with the guidance of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
(*) The process of putting personnel and/or vehicles and their associated stores and equipment into ships and/or aircraft. See also loading.
A consolidated table showing personnel and cargo, by troop or naval units, loaded aboard a combat-loaded ship.
(*) An area ashore, including a group of embarkation points, in which final preparations for embarkation are completed and through which assigned personnel and loads for craft and ships are called forward to embark. See also mounting area.
A temporary administrative formation of personnel with supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked (combat loaded) aboard the ships of one transport element (unit) (group). It is dissolved upon completion of the embarkation. An embarkation element normally consists of two or more embarkation teams: a unit, of two or more elements; and a group, of two or more units. See also embarkation organization; embarkation team.
An officer on the staff of units of the landing force who advises the commander thereof on matters pertaining to embarkation planning and loading ships. See also combat cargo officer.
(*) An order specifying dates, times, routes, loading diagrams, and methods of movement to shipside or aircraft for troops and their equipment. See also movement table.
A temporary administrative formation of personnel with supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked (combat loaded) aboard amphibious shipping. See also embarkation element (unit) (group); embarkation team.
In amphibious operations, the phase that encompasses the orderly assembly of personnel and materiel and their subsequent loading aboard ships and/or aircraft in a sequence designed to meet the requirements of the landing force concept of operations ashore. (JP 3-02.2)
The plans prepared by the landing force and appropriate subordinate commanders containing instructions and information concerning the organization for embarkation, assignment to shipping, supplies and equipment to be embarked, location and assignment of embarkation areas, control and communication arrangements, movement schedules and embarkation sequence, and additional pertinent instructions relating to the embarkation of the landing force. (JP 3-02)
A temporary administrative formation of all personnel with supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked (combat loaded) aboard one ship. See also embarkation element (unit) (group); embarkation organization.
(*) An anchorage, which may have a limited defense organization, for naval vessels, mobile support units, auxiliaries, or merchant ships. See also assembly anchorage; holding anchorage; working anchorage.
See aircraft arresting barrier.
A Department of Defense civilian employee whose assigned duties and responsibilities must be accomplished following the evacuation of non-essential personnel (including dependents) during a declared emergency or outbreak of war. The position occupied cannot be converted to a military billet because it requires uninterrupted performance so as to provide immediate and continuing support for combat operations and/ or combat systems support functions. See also evacuation. (JP 1-0)
An interment, usually on the battlefield, when conditions do not permit either evacuation for interment in an interment site or interment according to national or international legal regulations. See also mortuary affairs; temporary interment; trench interment. (JP 4-06)
(*) A generic term for all radio beacons used for emergency locating purposes. See also crash locator beacon; personal locator beacon.
Measures taken in advance of an emergency to reduce the loss of life and property and to protect a nation’s institutions from all types of hazards through a comprehensive emergency management program of preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery. Also called EP. (JP 3-26)
A category of immediate mission request that takes precedence over all other priorities, e.g., an enemy breakthrough. See also immediate mission request; priority of immediate mission requests.
A site located where practicable outside a prime target area to which all or portions of a civilian or military headquarters may be moved. As a minimum, it is manned to provide for the maintenance of the facility, communications, and database. It should be capable of rapid activation, of supporting the initial requirements of the relocated headquarters for a predetermined period, and of expansion to meet wartime requirements of the relocated headquarters.
The least amount of immediate repair to damaged facilities necessary for the facilities to support the mission. These repairs will be made using expedient materials and methods (such as AM-2 aluminum matting, cold-mix asphalt, plywood scabs, temporary utility lines, and emergency generators). Modular or kit-type facility substitutes would be appropriate if repairs cannot be made in time to meet mission requirements. See also facility substitutes. (JP 4-04)
A resupply mission that occurs based on a predetermined set of circumstances and time interval should radio contact not be established or, once established, is lost between a special operations tactical element and its base. See also automatic resupply; on-call resupply. (JP 3-05.1)
A degree of risk where anticipated effects may cause some temporary shock, casualties and may significantly reduce the unit’s combat efficiency. See also degree of risk; negligible risk (nuclear).
(*) A product which may be used, in an emergency only, in place of another product, but only on the advice of technically qualified personnel of the nation using the product, who will specify the limitations.
The selective and controlled use of electromagnetic, acoustic, or other emitters to optimize command and control capabilities while minimizing, for operations security: a. detection by enemy sensors; b. mutual interference among friendly systems; and/or c. enemy interference with the ability to execute a military deception plan. Also called EMCON. See also electronic warfare.
Orders used to authorize, control, or prohibit the use of electronic emission equipment. Also called EMCON orders. See also control of electromagnetic radiation.
The component of communications security that results from all measures taken to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from intercept and analysis of compromising emanations from crypto-equipment and telecommunications systems. See also communications security. (JP 6-0)
(*) 1. A prepared position for one or more weapons or pieces of equipment, for protection against hostile fire or bombardment, and from which they can execute their tasks. 2. The act of fixing a gun in a prepared position from which it may be fired.
The strategic, operational, or tactical use of forces. See also employment planning. (JP 5-0)
Planning that prescribes how to apply force and/or forces to attain specified military objectives. Employment planning concepts are developed by combatant commanders through their component commanders. See also employment. (JP 5-0)
Early deploying forces that establish critical capabilities to facilitate deployment and initial employment (including sustainment) of a force. See also deployment; employment; force. (JP 4-08)
Countermeasures designed to counter mines once they have been laid. This includes both passive and active mine countermeasures. See also mine countermeasures. (JP 3-15)
To convert plain text into unintelligible form by means of a cipher system.
The time period when the sun has dropped 6 degrees beneath the western horizon; it is the instant at which there is no longer sufficient light to see objects with the unaided eye. Light intensification devices are recommended from this time until begin morning civil twilight. Also called EECT.
A final combination of end products, component parts, and/or materials that is ready for its intended use, e.g., ship, tank, mobile machine shop, or aircraft.
Occurs when the sun has dropped 12 degrees below the western horizon, and is the instant of last available daylight for the visual control of limited ground operations. At end of evening nautical twilight there is no further sunlight available. See also horizon. (JP 2-01.3)
In artillery, mortar, and naval gunfire support, an order given to terminate firing on a specific target. See also cease loading; call for fire; fire mission.
The set of required conditions that defines achievement of the commander’s objectives. (JP 3-0)
(*) The time an aircraft can continue flying, or a ground vehicle or ship can continue operating, under specified conditions, e.g., without refueling. See also endurance distance.
(*) Total distance that a ground vehicle or ship can be self-propelled at any specified endurance speed.
The stocking aboard ship for a period of time, normally covering the number of months between overhauls, of items with all of the following characteristics: a. low price; b. low weight and cube; c. a predictable usage rate; and d. nondeteriorative. See also loading.
Those courses of action of which the enemy is physically capable and that, if adopted, will affect accomplishment of the friendly mission. The term “capabilities” includes not only the general courses of action open to the enemy, such as attack, defense, reinforcement, or withdrawal, but also all the particular courses of action possible under each general course of action. “Enemy capabilities” are considered in the light of all known factors affecting military operations, including time, space, weather, terrain, and the strength and disposition of enemy forces. In strategic thinking, the capabilities of a nation represent the courses of action within the power of the nation for accomplishing its national objectives throughout the range of military operations. See also capability; course of action; mission. (JP 2-01.3)
Any person in an armed conflict who could be properly detained under the laws and customs of war. Also called EC. (JP 2-01)
(*) 1. In air defense, a fire control order used to direct or authorize units and/or weapon systems to fire on a designated target. See also cease engagement; hold fire. 2. (DOD only) To bring the enemy under fire.
1. In air defense, an attack with guns or air-to-air missiles by an interceptor aircraft, or the launch of an air defense missile by air defense artillery and the missile’s subsequent travel to intercept. 2. A tactical conflict, usually between opposing lower echelons maneuver forces. See also battle; campaign.
Tactical air party member who assists in mission planning and provides final control of close air support aircraft in support of ground forces. Also called ETAC. See also close air support; mission; terminal. (JP 3-09.1)
The care required to maintain the phase treatment initiated prior to evacuation and the sustainment of the patient’s medical condition during evacuation. See also evacuation; patient. (JP 4-02)
(*) An offensive maneuver in which the main attacking force passes around or over the enemy’s principal defensive positions to secure objectives to the enemy’s rear. See also turning movement.
The process of removing solid, liquid, and hazardous wastes, except for unexploded ordnance, resulting from the joint operation of US forces to a condition that approaches the one existing prior to operation as determined by the environmental baseline survey, if one was conducted. The extent of this process will depend upon the operational situation at the time that cleanup is accomplished.
The spectrum of environmental media, resources, or programs that may impact on, or are affected by, the planning and execution of military operations. Factors may include, but are not limited to, environmental compliance, pollution prevention, conservation, protection of historical and cultural sites, and protection of flora and fauna. (JP 3-34)
The various combinations of scientific, technical, and advisory activities (including modification processes, i.e., the influence of manmade and natural factors) required to acquire, produce, and supply information on the past, present, and future states of space, atmospheric, oceanographic, and terrestrial surroundings for use in military planning and decisionmaking processes, or to modify those surroundings to enhance military operations.
The integration and application of environmental values into the military mission in order to sustain readiness, improve quality of life, strengthen civil relations, and preserve valuable natural resources.
In logistics, all nonexpendable items needed to outfit or equip an individual or organization. See also assembly; component; subassembly; supplies.
The status of an item of equipment in the possession of an operating unit that indicates it is capable of fulfilling its intended mission and in a system configuration that offers a high assurance of an effective, reliable, and safe performance.
A deliberate or unpremeditated increase in scope or violence of a conflict.
Any person who has been physically captured by the enemy and succeeds in getting free. See also evasion and escape.
A planned route to allow personnel engaged in clandestine activity to depart from a site or area when possibility of compromise or apprehension exists.
See evasion and escape route.
(*) 1. A combatant unit(s) assigned to accompany and protect another force or convoy. 2. Aircraft assigned to protect other aircraft during a mission. 3. An armed guard that accompanies a convoy, a train, prisoners, etc. 4. An armed guard accompanying persons as a mark of honor. 5. (DOD only) To convoy. 6. (DOD only) A member of the Armed Forces assigned to accompany, assist, or guide an individual or group, e.g., an escort officer.
Combat forces of various types provided to protect other forces against enemy attack.
The act of obtaining, delivering, transmitting, communicating, or receiving information about the national defense with an intent, or reason to believe, that the information may be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of any foreign nation. Espionage is a violation of 18 United States Code 792-798 and Article 106, Uniform Code of Military Justice. See also counterintelligence. (JP 2-01.2)
Overt, covert, or clandestine activity designed to obtain information relating to the national defense with intent or reason to believe that it will be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of a foreign nation. For espionage crimes see Chapter 37 of Title 18, United States Code.
That care received within a theater that is dependent upon the mission, enemy, terrain, troops, time available, and other civilian considerations. It includes first responder care, forward resuscitative surgery, and en route care as well as treatment and hospitalization to return the patient to duty or to stabilize for movement to a higher level of care. See also en route care; first responder phase; forward resuscitative surgery; patient; theater. (JP 4-02)
In counterdrug operations, compounds that are required in the synthetic or extraction processes of drug production, but in most cases do not become part of the drug molecule. Essential chemicals are used in the production of cocaine or heroin. (JP 3-07.4)
Transmissions (record or voice) of any precedence that must be sent electrically in order for the command or activity concerned to avoid a serious impact on mission accomplishment or safety or life.
Key questions likely to be asked by adversary officials and intelligence systems about specific friendly intentions, capabilities, and activities, so they can obtain answers critical to their operational effectiveness. Also called EEFI.
The most critical information requirements regarding the adversary and the environment needed by the commander by a particular time to relate with other available information and intelligence in order to assist in reaching a logical decision. Also called EEIs. (JP 2-01)
Any industry necessary to the needs of a civilian or war economy. The term includes the basic industries as well as the necessary portions of those other industries that transform the crude basic raw materials into useful intermediate or end products, e.g., the iron and steel industry, the food industry, and the chemical industry.
The condition achieved from the denial of critical information to adversaries.
(*) An installation, together with its personnel and equipment, organized as an operating entity. See also activity; base; equipment.
1. An analysis of a foreign situation, development, or trend that identifies its major elements, interprets the significance, and appraises the future possibilities and the prospective results of the various actions that might be taken. 2. An appraisal of the capabilities, vulnerabilities, and potential courses of action of a foreign nation or combination of nations in consequence of a specific national plan, policy, decision, or contemplated course of action. 3. An analysis of an actual or contemplated clandestine operation in relation to the situation in which it is or would be conducted in order to identify and appraise such factors as available as well as needed assets and potential obstacles, accomplishments, and consequences. See also intelligence estimate.
1. The process of moving any person who is wounded, injured, or ill to and/or between medical treatment facilities. 2. The clearance of personnel, animals, or materiel from a given locality. 3. The controlled process of collecting, classifying, and shipping unserviceable or abandoned materiel, US or foreign, to appropriate reclamation, maintenance, technical intelligence, or disposal facilities. 4. The ordered or authorized departure of noncombatants from a specific area by Department of State, Department of Defense, or appropriate military commander. This refers to the movement from one area to another in the same or different countries. The evacuation is caused by unusual or emergency circumstances and applies equally to command or non-command sponsored family members. See also evacuee; noncombatant evacuation operations.
(*) In an amphibious operation, a ship designated as a control point for landing craft, amphibious vehicles, and helicopters evacuating casualties from the beaches. Medical personnel embarked in the evacuation control ship effect distribution of casualties throughout the attack force in accordance with ship’s casualty capacities and specialized medical facilities available, and also perform emergency surgery.
(*) A convoy which is used for evacuation of dangerously exposed waters. See also evacuation of dangerously exposed waters.
(*) The movement of merchant ships under naval control from severely threatened coastlines and dangerously exposed waters to safer localities. See also dangerously exposed waters.
(*) The transfer of mobile/movable equipment from a threatened port to another port or to a working anchorage.
1. Command decision establishing the maximum number of days that patients may be held within the command for treatment. Patients who, in the opinion of responsible medical officers, cannot be returned to a duty status within the period prescribed are evacuated by the first available means, provided the travel involved will not aggravate their disabilities. 2. A command decision concerning the movement of civilians from the proximity of military operations for security and safety reasons and involving the need to arrange for movement, reception, care, and control of such individuals. 3. Command policy concerning the evacuation of unserviceable or abandoned materiel and including designation of channels and destinations for evacuated materiel, the establishment of controls and procedures, and the dissemination of condition standards and disposition instructions. See also evacuation; patient. (JP 4-02)
A civilian removed from a place of residence by military direction for reasons of personal security or the requirements of the military situation. See also displaced person; expellee; refugee.
Any person isolated in hostile or unfriendly territory who eludes capture.
In intelligence usage, appraisal of an item of information in terms of credibility, reliability, pertinence, and accuracy.
That command or agency designated in the evaluation directive to be responsible for the planning, coordination, and conduct of the required evaluation of a joint test publication. The evaluation agent, normally the US Joint Forces Command, identifies evaluation criteria and the media to be used, develops a proposed evaluation directive, coordinates exercise-related evaluation requirements with the sponsoring commands, and provides required evaluation reports to the Director, J-7. Also called EA. See also joint doctrine; joint test publication. (CJCSI 5120.02)
In intelligence usage, continuous assessment of intelligence operations throughout the intelligence process to ensure that the commander’s intelligence requirements are being met. See intelligence process. (JP 2-01)
The process whereby individuals who are isolated in hostile or unfriendly territory avoid capture with the goal of successfully returning to areas under friendly control. See also evasion and recovery. (JP 3-50.3)
In evasion and recovery operations, any piece of information or equipment designed to assist an individual in evading capture. Evasion aids include, but are not limited to, blood chits, pointee-talkees, evasion charts, barter items, and equipment designed to complement issued survival equipment. See also blood chit; evasion; evasion and recovery; evasion chart; pointee-talkee; recovery; recovery operations. (JP 3-50.3)
(*) The procedures and operations whereby military personnel and other selected individuals are enabled to emerge from an enemy-held or hostile area to areas under friendly control. Also called E&E.
Processed information prepared to assist personnel to escape if captured by the enemy or to evade capture if lost in enemy-dominated territory.
The organization within enemy-held or hostile areas that operates to receive, move, and exfiltrate military personnel or selected individuals to friendly control. See also unconventional warfare.
A course of travel, preplanned or not, that an escapee or evader uses in an attempt to depart enemy territory in order to return to friendly lines.
The full spectrum of coordinated actions carried out by evaders, recovery forces, and operational recovery planners to effect the successful return of personnel isolated in hostile territory to friendly control. See also evader; evasion; hostile; recovery force. (JP 3-50.3)
Special map or chart designed as an evasion aid. See also evasion; evasion aid. (JP 3-50.3)
A course of action, developed before executing a combat mission, that is intended to improve a potential evader’s chances of successful evasion and recovery by providing recovery forces with an additional source of information that can increase the predictability of the evader’s actions and movement. Also called EPA. See also course of action; evader; evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery force. (JP 3-50.3)
A description of the indicators and activity expected to occur in each named area of interest. It normally cross-references each named area of interest and indicator with the times they are expected to occur and the courses of action they will confirm or deny. There is no prescribed format. See also activity; area of interest; indicator. (JP 2-01.3)
A guide for collection planning. The event template depicts the named areas of interest where activity, or its lack of activity, will indicate which course of action the adversary has adopted. See also activity; area of interest; collection planning; course of action. (JP 2-01.3)
See hyperstereoscopy.
(*) In railway terminology, transport of a load whose size, weight, or preparation entails special difficulties vis-a-vis the facilities or equipment of even one of the railway systems to be used. See also ordinary transport.
The quantity of property in possession of any component of the Department of Defense that exceeds the quantity required or authorized for retention by that component.
A maritime zone adjacent to the territorial sea that may not extend beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured. Within the exclusive economic zone (EEZ), the coastal state has sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring, exploiting, conserving, and managing natural resources, both living and nonliving, of the seabed, subsoil, and the subjacent waters and, with regard to other activities, for the economic exploitation and exploration of the zone (e.g., the production of energy from the water, currents, and winds). Within the EEZ, the coastal state has jurisdiction with regard to establishing and using artificial islands, installations, and structures having economic purposes as well as for marine scientific research and the protection and preservation of the marine environment. Other states may, however, exercise traditional high seas freedoms of navigation, overflight, and related freedoms, such as conducting military exercises in the EEZ. Also called EEZ.
A zone established by a sanctioning body to prohibit specific activities in a specific geographic area. The purpose may be to persuade nations or groups to modify their behavior to meet the desires of the sanctioning body or face continued imposition of sanctions, or use or threat of force. (JP 3-0)
1. An order issued by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, by the authority and at the direction of the Secretary of Defense, to implement a decision by the President or Secretary of Defense to initiate military operations. 2. An order to initiate military operations as directed. Also called EXORD. (JP 3-26)
A commander to whom nuclear weapons are released for delivery against specific targets or in accordance with approved plans. See also commander(s); releasing commander (nuclear weapons).
The phase of the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System crisis action planning process that provides for the translation of an approved course of action into an executable plan of action through the preparation of a complete operation plan or operation order. Execution planning is detailed planning for the commitment of specified forces and resources. During crisis action planning, an approved operation plan or other Secretary of Defense-approved course of action is adjusted, refined, and translated into an operation order. Execution planning can proceed on the basis of prior deliberate planning, or it can take place in the absence of prior planning. Also called EP. See also Joint Operation Planning and Execution System.
A term used to indicate a delegation of authority by the Secretary of Defense to a subordinate to act on the Secretary’s behalf. Designation as executive agent, in and of itself, confers no authority. The exact nature and scope of the authority delegated must be stated in the document designating the executive agent. An executive agent may be limited to providing only administration and support or coordinating common functions, or it may be delegated authority, direction, and control over specified resources for specified purposes. Also called EA. (JP 3-26)
A military maneuver or simulated wartime operation involving planning, preparation, and execution. It is carried out for the purpose of training and evaluation. It may be a multinational, joint, or single-Service exercise, depending on participating organizations. See also command post exercise; field exercise; maneuver.
(*) A group of officers who by virtue of experience, qualifications, and a thorough knowledge of the exercise instructions, are selected to direct or control an exercise.
(*) In naval mine warfare, a mine containing an inert filling and an indicating device. See also explosive filled mine; fitted mine; mine.
(*) An occurrence injected by directing staffs into the exercise which will have an effect on the forces being exercised, or their facilities, and which will require action by the appropriate commander and/or staff being exercised.
(*) In naval mine warfare, a mine suitable for use in mine warfare exercises, fitted with visible or audible indicating devices to show where and when it would normally fire. See also drill mine; mine; practice mine.
(*) The fundamental requirements for an exercise, providing in advance an outline of the concept, form, scope, setting, aim, objectives, force requirements, political implications, analysis arrangements, and costs.
(*) The commander who conceives a particular exercise and orders that it be planned and executed either by the commander’s staff or by a subordinate headquarters.
(*) An activity which may take the form of a map exercise, a war game, a series of lectures, a discussion group, or an operational analysis.
A combination of two words, normally unclassified, used exclusively to designate a test, drill, or exercise. An exercise term is employed to preclude the possibility of confusing exercise directives with actual operations directives.
The removal of personnel or units from areas under enemy control by stealth, deception, surprise, or clandestine means. See also special operations; unconventional warfare.
Consists of items other than those in the fighting load that are required to sustain or protect the combat soldier. These items may be necessary for increased personal and environmental protection and are not normally carried by the individual. See also fighting load.
See nuclear exoatmospheric burst.
A military operation conducted by an armed force to accomplish a specific objective in a foreign country. (JP 3-0)
An armed force organized to accomplish a specific objective in a foreign country. (JP 3-0)
A civilian outside the boundaries of the country of his or her nationality or ethnic origin who is being forcibly repatriated to that country or to a third country for political or other purposes. See also displaced person; evacuee; refugee.
Property that may be consumed in use or loses its identity in use and may be dropped from stock record accounts when it is issued or used.
Supplies that are consumed in use, such as ammunition, paint, fuel, cleaning and preserving materials, surgical dressings, drugs, medicines, etc., or that lose their identity, such as spare parts, etc. Also called consumable supplies and materiel.
(*) A device designed to generate an electric current in a firing circuit after deliberate action by the user in order to initiate an explosive charge or charges.
(*) 1. (DOD only) Taking full advantage of success in military operations, following up initial gains, and making permanent the temporary effects already achieved. 2. Taking full advantage of any information that has come to hand for tactical, operational, or strategic purposes. 3. An offensive operation that usually follows a successful attack and is designed to disorganize the enemy in depth. See also attack; pursuit.
(*) In naval mine warfare, a parallel operation to search sweeping, in which a sample of the route or area is subjected to minehunting procedures to determine the presence or absence of mines.
(*) In mine warfare, a mine containing an explosive charge but not necessarily the firing train needed to detonate it. See also exercise filled mine; fitted mine.
(*) All munitions containing explosives, nuclear fission or fusion materials, and biological and chemical agents. This includes bombs and warheads; guided and ballistic missiles; artillery, mortar, rocket, and small arms ammunition; all mines, torpedoes, and depth charges; demolition charges; pyrotechnics; clusters and dispensers; cartridge and propellant actuated devices; electro-explosive devices; clandestine and improvised explosive devices; and all similar or related items or components explosive in nature.
(*) The detection, identification, on-site evaluation, rendering safe, recovery, and final disposal of unexploded explosive ordnance. It may also include explosive ordnance which has become hazardous by damage or deterioration. Also called EOD.
(*) The suspected or detected presence of unexploded or damaged explosive ordnance which constitutes a hazard to operations, installations, personnel, or material. Not included in this definition are the accidental arming or other conditions that develop during the manufacture of high explosive material, technical service assembly operations or the laying of mines and demolition charges.
(*) Those particular courses or modes of action taken by explosive ordnance disposal personnel for access to, diagnosis, rendering safe, recovery, and final disposal of explosive ordnance or any hazardous material associated with an explosive ordnance disposal incident. a. access procedures — Those actions taken to locate exactly and gain access to unexploded explosive ordnance. b. diagnostic procedures — Those actions taken to identify and evaluate unexploded explosive ordnance. c. render safe procedures — The portion of the explosive ordnance disposal procedures involving the application of special explosive ordnance disposal methods and tools to provide for the interruption of functions or separation of essential components of unexploded explosive ordnance to prevent an unacceptable detonation. d. recovery procedures — Those actions taken to recover unexploded explosive ordnance. e. final disposal procedures— The final disposal of explosive ordnance which may include demolition or burning in place, removal to a disposal area, or other appropriate means.
Personnel with special training and equipment who render explosive ordnance safe (such as bombs, mines, projectiles, and booby traps), make intelligence reports on such ordnance, and supervise the safe removal thereof.
(*) A succession of initiating and igniting elements arranged to cause a charge to function.
(*) The exposure dose at a given point is a measurement of radiation in relation to its ability to produce ionization. The unit of measurement of the exposure dose is the roentgen.
See air station.
In search and rescue operations, consists of contacting all possible sources of information on the missing craft, including physically checking possible locations such as harbors, marinas, and airport ramps. An extended communications search is normally conducted after a preliminary communications search has yielded no results and when the mission is upgraded to the alert phase. Also called EXCOM. See also preliminary communications search; search and rescue incident classification, Subpart b. extent of a military exercise — (*) The scope of an exercise in relation to the involvement of NATO and/or national commands. See also intra-command exercise.
The visible plan area of damage to a target element, usually expressed in units of 1,000 square feet, in detailed damage analysis and in approximate percentages in immediate-type damage assessment reports; e.g., 50 percent structural damage.
All people who are not part of the internal audience of US military members and civilian employees and their immediate families. Part of the concept of “publics.” Includes many varied subsets that may be referred to as “audiences” or“publics.” See also internal audience; public.
(*) A reinforcing force which is principally stationed in peacetime outside its intended Major NATO Command area of operations.
US national or third party contract personnel hired from outside the operational area. See also systemssupport contractors; theater support contractors. (JP 4-07)
An auxiliary parachute designed to release and extract and deploy cargo from aircraft in flight and deploy cargo parachutes. See also gravity extraction.
(*) A specified drop zone used for the delivery of supplies and/or equipment by means of an extraction technique from an aircraft flying very close to the ground.


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