Aircraft / Aviation Vehicles & Artillery Infantry Arms Warships & Submarines Military Pay Scale Military Ranks

TOS-1 (TOC-1)

Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) (1988)

Land Systems / Battlefield

1 / 3
Image from the Russian Ministry of Defense.
2 / 3
Image from the Russian Ministry of Defense.
3 / 3
Image from the Russian Ministry of Defense.

Jump-to: Specifications

The popular Soviet T-72 Main Battle Tank formed the basis of the TOS-1 rocket projecting system originating in the latter stages of the Cold War.

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 07/08/2019 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.
It is standard practice for a proven tank design to make up a larger family of vehicles by way of proven running gear and operational experience. This helped to produce the TOS-1 (also "TOC-1") where the popular T-72 Main Battle Tank (MBT) chassis has formed the basis of a Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS). MLRSs are used as indirect fire weapons over range, often times attached to artillery regiments for massed firepower. Battlefield rockets have provided a tactical and psychological effect on enemy forces for generations and continues to do so today. Many modern armies stock special vehicles like MLRSs as a result.

Omsk Transmash Design Bureau of the former Soviet Union headed design work on the vehicle in 1988. Obvious modifications to the existing T-72A model MBT included removal of its entire turret assembly, this structure accordingly replaced by a large and rectangular multi-shot rocket pack seated atop a traversing mount. The vehicle retained the original tank's crew of three and weighed 100,000 lb. Dimensions included a running length of 9.5 meters with a width of 3.6 meters and height of 2.22 meters. Power was through a standard V-84 diesel-fueled engine developing 840 horsepower. Performance specifications included a road speed of 37 miles per hour with an operational range out to 340 miles.

The multi-shot launcher pod was originally given 30 launch tubes in the TOS-1M variant. This was later reduced to 24 in the TOS-1A upgrade with sported a 3 x 8 tube arrangement. The rockets were of 220mm caliber and could carry variable warhead types to engage fortifications, light armored vehicles, and troops out in the open. The vehicle has been resupplied through a pair of accompanying TZM-T (KrAZ-255B) trucks which are modified especially for the rocket resupply role.

Pilot vehicles were evaluated operationally from 1988 into 1989 during the latter stages of the Soviet-Afghan War (1979-1989) and found to be useful short-to-medium range assault weapons. Their development was kept rather "close to the vest" for it was not until 1999 that the vehicle was actually showcased to the public and seen in military parades since. Production had been from 1988 onwards and appears to continue today (2015).

The TOS-1 has managed to survive the post-Soviet defense budget crunch and is in operational service with the modern Russian Army which has allowed it to see additional combat actions as was the case during the Battle of Grozny (1999-2000) against Chechnya forces. A few foreign operators also exist, these being former Soviet satellite countries and Cold War-era customers - Azerbaijan, Iraq, and Kazakhstan - though none have operate the TOS-1 family in the numbers that the Russians field.

During 2001, the Russian Army adopted a modernized and improved version of the original TOS-1M as the aforementioned TOS-1A. Changes to the base design included a reduction in the number of launch tubes used, installation of a new ballistics computer, and increased engagement ranges out to 3.7 miles.

Iraqi TOS-1 vehicles were used as recently as 2014 where their firepower was brought to bear on elements of ISIS during the assault on Jurf Al Sakhar in October. These were upgraded TOS-1A systems.


Service Year

Soviet Union national flag graphic
Soviet Union


Omsk Transmash Design Bureau - Soviet Union / Russia
National flag of Azerbaijan National flag of Iraq National flag of Kazakhstan National flag of Russia National flag of the Soviet Union National flag of Syria Azerbaijan; Iraq; Kazakhstan; Russia; Soviet Union; Syria
(OPERATORS list includes past, present, and future operators when applicable)
Fire Support / Assault / Breaching
Support allied forces through direct / in-direct fire, assault forward positions, and / or breach fortified areas of the battlefield.

31.2 ft
9.5 m
11.8 ft
3.6 m
7.3 ft
2.22 m
90,610 lb
41,100 kg
45.3 tons
(Showcased structural values pertain to the base TOS-1 (TOC-1) production variant. Length typically includes main gun in forward position if applicable to the design)
Powerplant: 1 x V-84 diesel-fueled engine developing 840 horsepower driving conventional track-and-wheel arrangement.
37.3 mph
(60.0 kph)
341.8 mi
(550.0 km)
(Showcased performance specifications pertain to the base TOS-1 (TOC-1) production variant. Compare this entry against any other in our database)
24 OR 30 x 220mm rocket launcher pack (model dependent.

Supported Types

Graphical image of tank battlefield rockets

(Not all weapon types may be represented in the showcase above)
Dependent upon variant.

TOS-1 - Base Series Designation.
TOC-1 - Alternative Russian Designation.
TOS-1M (Ob 634) - Original model of 1988; 30-shot pack.
TOS-1A (Ob 634B) - Upgraded model of 2001; improved ballistics computer and engagement range; 24-shot pack.

Military lapel ribbon for the American Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for pioneering aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of the Bulge
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Kursk
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon representing modern aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur War
Military lapel ribbon for experimental military vehicles

Ribbon graphics not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns / operations.


Disclaimer | Privacy Policy | Cookies

2022 Military Pay Scale Army Ranks Navy Ranks Air Force Ranks Alphabet Code DoD Dictionary American War Deaths French Military Victories Vietnam War Casualties

The "Military Factory" name and MilitaryFactory.com logo are registered ® U.S. trademarks protected by all applicable domestic and international intellectual property laws. All written content, illustrations, and photography are unique to this website (unless where indicated) and not for reuse/reproduction in any form. Material presented throughout this website is for historical and entertainment value only and should not to be construed as usable for hardware restoration, maintenance, or general operation. We do not sell any of the items showcased on this site. Please direct all other inquiries to militaryfactory AT gmail.com.

Part of a network of sites that includes GlobalFirepower, a data-driven property used in ranking the top military powers of the world, WDMMA.org, the World Directory of Modern Military Aircraft, and SR71blackbird.org, detailing the history of the world's most iconic spyplane.

Facebook Logo YouTube Logo

www.MilitaryFactory.com • All Rights Reserved • Content ©2003-