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M1 (Light Tank, M1 / M1 Combat Car)

Light Tank

United States | 1933

"The M1 Combat Car preceded the M2 Light Tank line for the American Army and saw a short-lived career from 1937 to 1943."

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 06/02/2016 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site; No A.I. was used in the generation of this content.
The M1 Combat Car represented the rather meek beginning of American World War 2 tank development. It was an all-machine-gun tracked platform featuring a crew of four in its compact dimensions and managed a production total of 113 units through the storied Rock Island Arsenal facility. The vehicle managed a very short operational service life due to the move by all major armies to reequip their armored forces with cannon-carrying vehicles - the United States being no exception. The M1 Combat Car served from 1937 into 1943 before being given up.

As was the case with many armies in the period between World War 1 (1914-1918) and World War 2 (1939-1945), the United States Army adopted a policy of light combat tanks intended to support infantry actions - though to skirt around period restrictions, the vehicles were termed "Combat Cars". A 9.4 ton design was accepted which incorporated the engine at its rear, a 360-degree traversing turret at center and a hull superstructure atop a Vertical Volute Spring Suspension (VVSS) system for cross-country travel. Armor protection was up to 16mm thick. The crew numbered five and was made up of the driver, section commander, gunner and loader. The primary armament was 1 x 0.50 caliber heavy machine gun and 1 x 0.30 caliber medium machine gun held in the turret through a side-by-side arrangement. Power was from a Continental R670 7-cylinder air-cooled radial engine developing 250 horsepower. Road speeds reached 45mph and road range was out to 100 miles. Dimensions included a length of 13.5 feet, a height of 7.4 feet, and a width of 7.9 feet.

Rock Island Arsenal outputted 89 of the initial M1 production model. This was then followed by 17 of the newer M1A1 models which incorporated an all-new octagonal turret design and redesigned running gear. The M1A1E1 was a short production run of a developmental type which installed a Guiberson T1020 diesel engine over the original's gasoline-fueled version. Production of this mark totaled seven vehicles. Then followed the definitive diesel-fueled model as the M2 of which 34 were eventually produced.

The M1 was used in an operational role during the early stages of World War 2 where all manner of armored vehicles were needed. Some stocks fought (and fell) in the Philippines campaign of 1941-1942 and operated by the Philippines military.

The "Light Tank M1A2" designated was used from 1940 onwards, replacing the "combat car" designation and classification of the series. This then led the full line of "M" series tanks fielded by the American Army since - the M2 Light Tank followed by the M3 Lee/Grant and, ultimately, the M4 Sherman. The M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank of today has reused the "M1" designation.

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Power & Performance
Those special qualities that separate one land system design from another. Performance specifications presented assume optimal operating conditions for the M1 (Light Tank, M1 / M1 Combat Car) Light Tank.
1 x Continental R670 7-cylinder air-cooled radial gasoline-fueled engine developing 250 horsepower.
Installed Power
45 mph
72 kph
Road Speed
100 miles
161 km
The physical qualities of the M1 (Light Tank, M1 / M1 Combat Car) Light Tank.
13.6 ft
4.14 meters
O/A Length
7.9 ft
2.4 meters
O/A Width
7.4 ft
2.26 meters
O/A Height
18,794 lb
8,525 kg | 9.4 tons
Armament & Ammunition
Available supported armament, ammunition, and special-mission equipment featured in the design of the M1 (Light Tank, M1 / M1 Combat Car) Light Tank.
1 x 0.50 M2 Browning heavy machine gun with 1 x 0.30 M1919 Browning machine gun in turret.
Not Available.
Nightvision - NONE
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear Protection (CBRN) - NONE
Notable series variants as part of the M1 (Light Tank, M1 / M1 Combat Car) family line.
M1 Combat Car - Base Series Designation
M1 - Initial production model; fitted with Continental R-670 gasoline engine; 89 examples.
M1A1 - Revised turret design and running gear; 17 examples.
M1A1E1 - Fitted with Guiberson T-1020 diesel-fueled engine; 7 examples.
M2 - Fitted with upgraded Guiberson diesel engine; 34 examples.
Global customers who have evaluated and/or operated the M1 (Light Tank, M1 / M1 Combat Car). Nations are displayed by flag, each linked to their respective national land systems listing.

Total Production: 113 Units

Contractor(s): Rock Island Arsenal - USA
National flag of the United States

[ United States ]
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Image of the M1 (Light Tank, M1 / M1 Combat Car)
Image from the Public Domain.

Design Qualities
Some designs are single-minded in their approach while others offer a more versatile solution to battlefield requirements.
Some designs stand the test of time while others are doomed to never advance beyond the drawing board; let history be their judge.
Going Further...
The M1 (Light Tank, M1 / M1 Combat Car) Light Tank appears in the following collections:
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