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85mm Model 1946 (D-44)


Anti-Tank Gun / Divisional Field Gun (1946)


Land Systems / Battlefield

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Jump-to: Specifications

The 85mm D-44 divisional field gun appeared too late to see combat action in World War 2 but contributed in Korea and Vietnam.



Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 10/12/2017 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.
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The Soviet counter offenses against German positions during World War 2 (1939-1945) placed a premium on quality, effective field guns for the Red Army. Design work on an all-new system began in 1943 and spanned into 1944, producing the 85mm D-44 Divisional Anti-Tank Field Gun (GRAU designation of "52-P-567"). As large-scale production did not begin until late 1945, the D-44 was not available for service in World War 2 but arrived in useful numbers for 1946. Manufacture was handled by Uralmash and some 10,800 units were produced in all from 1945 into 1953. In Red Army service, the D-44 replaced the aging stocks of 76.2mm ZiS-3 Anti-Tank (AT) field guns in service since 1941/1942 (over 103,000 of these were produced).

The D-44 utilized an effective 85mm barrel mounting a large brake at its muzzle - the gun derived from the main gun used in the famous T-34-85 Medium Tank of World War 2. The recoil mechanism sat behind a small shield that offered basic frontal protection for the gunnery crew, the crew typically numbered eight and each charged with a special role during the firing action. The recoil system incorporated a hydraulic recoil buffer to help retard the violent effects of the detonating propellant charge and outgoing shell. Elevation (-7 to +35 degrees) and traversal (54 degrees) were managed through a series of hand wheels and a sighting device (5.5x magnification OP-2-7) was integral. The gun, recoil system, and applicable hardware, sat atop a mounting arrangement seated on a two-wheeled (GAZ-AA rubber tires) split-trail carriage. The trail arms allowed the weapon to be towed when brought together behind a mover vehicle and served as an additional buffer against earth when fired. Dozer-type assemblies were fitted to the end of each arm.
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The D-44 exhibited an overall weight of 3,800lbs. Its length was 27 feet, 4 inches with a width of 5 feet, 10 inches and a height of 4 feet, 8 inches.

The D-44 ultimately held a long and useful service life with Soviet forces and its global allies. The weapon evolved along a few forms such as the "SD-44" of 1954. This variant included its own projectile storage container and an Auxiliary Propulsion Unit (APU). The APU outputted at 14 horsepower, allowing the crew to move the gun system short distances under its own power at up to 15mph speeds on road. These additions came at an expense, however, for its weight ballooned to 4,950lbs. The D-44N of the 1960s was a low-light level / night variant outfitted with the APN 3-7 series InfraRed (IR) system.

In practice, the D-44 gave a good account of itself. A trained and experienced crew could fire up to 20 rounds per minute in burst fire with the muzzle velocity reaching 3,380 feet per second. Effective firing ranges reached out to 1,260 yards with a maximum firing range listed at 17,110 yards. Projectile types included basic HE (High-Explosive) and AP (Armor-Piercing) rounds. Additional support was given for HVAP-T (High-Velocity, Armor-Piercing Tracer) rounds and HEAT-FS (High-Explosive, Anti-Tank, Fin-Stabilized) rounds.

Once in widespread circulation and use with Soviet forces, the D-44 was granted export and found service with the land armies of Cambodia, China (local production as the "Type 56"), East Germany, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, Poland, Romania, Syria and Vietnam among others. In the Chinese inventory, the weapon was recognized as the "Type 56" and these continue to serve the Pakistani Army today. Polish marks were the original D-44M (D-44) and the D-44MN (SD-44). These were modernized to an extent in the early 1980s to help extend their useful service lives.

Post-World War 2 era combat actions involving D-44 guns included the Korean War (1950-1953), the Vietnam War (1955-1975) and the various Arab wars against the newly-founded nation of Israel.

Specifications



Service Year
1946

Origin
Soviet Union national flag graphic
Soviet Union

Crew
8
CREWMEN
Production
10,800
UNITS


Uralmash - Soviet Union
National flag of Albania National flag of Algeria National flag of Bulgaria National flag of China National flag of Cuba National flag of Egypt National flag of Georgia National flag of modern Germany National flag of East Germany National flag of Guinea National flag of Hungary National flag of Iraq National flag of Iran National flag of Morocco National flag of Mozambique National flag of North Korea National flag of Pakistan National flag of Poland National flag of Romania National flag of the Soviet Union National flag of Sri Lanka National flag of Sudan National flag of Somalia National flag of Syria National flag of Ukraine National flag of Vietnam Albania; Algeria; Bulgaria; Cambodia; China; Cuba; East Germany; Egypt; Georgia; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Hungary; Iran; Iraq; Laos; North Korea; Mali; Morocco; Mozambique; Pakistan; Poland; Romania; Somalia; Soviet Union; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Syria; Ukraine; Vietnam
(OPERATORS list includes past, present, and future operators when applicable)
Anti-Tank / Anti-Armor
Base model or variant can be used to track, engage, and defeat armored enemy elements at range.
Fire Support / Assault / Breaching
Support allied forces through direct / in-direct fire, assault forward positions, and / or breach fortified areas of the battlefield.


Length
27.2 ft
8.3 m
Width
5.8 ft
1.78 m
Height
4.7 ft
1.42 m
Weight
3,803 lb
1,725 kg
Tonnage
1.9 tons
LIGHT
(Showcased structural values pertain to the base 85mm Model 1946 (D-44) production variant. Length typically includes main gun in forward position if applicable to the design)
Powerplant: None, this is a towed artillery piece.
Range
9.7 mi
(15.7 km)
(Showcased performance specifications pertain to the base 85mm Model 1946 (D-44) production variant. Compare this entry against any other in our database)
1 x 85mm barrel


Supported Types




(Not all weapon types may be represented in the showcase above)
Dependent upon ammunition carrier.


D-44 - Base Series Designation
SD-44 - Model of 1954; Auxiliary Propulsion Unit (APU) added.
D-44N - Variant with IR support for low-light level / night time combat operations.
Model 1946 - Alternative Designation
Type 56 - Chinese designation of local production coy.
D-44M - Polish modernized D-44
D-44MN - Polish modernized D-44N


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