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M113 APC

Tracked Armored Personnel Carrier

United States | 1960

"Production of the American M113 Armored Personnel Carrier reached over 80,000 units with service in over 60 countries worldwide."

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 07/17/2023 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site; No A.I. was used in the generation of this content.
The American M113 Armored Personnel Carrier became one of the most successful Cold War vehicles in the world with operators numbering over sixty nations and production reaching over 80,000 units. The vehicle made its way into operational service during 1960 and served with American and Australian forces during the Vietnam War (1955-1975). From there, its global reach was such that the carrier went on to see combat actions in the Yom Kipper War (1973), the Invasion of Panama (1989-1990), the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), the Persian Gulf War (1991), the War in Kosovo (1998-1999), and the recent wars in Afghanistan (2001-Present) and Iraq (2003 - 2011) while also being featured in less publicized conflicts. The chassis has also proven hugely adaptable and has served as the basis for a plethora of other related battlefield variants. Despite its 1950s-era design, the M113 remains a frontline participant for many nations today (2014).

Development on the 13.5-ton tracked vehicle began in 1956 to help fulfill a U.S. Army requirement for an air-transportable Armored Personnel Carrier (APC). The vehicle would be compact enough to fit into the cargo hold of a Lockheed C-130 Hercules transport or similar. FMC Corporation (Food, Machinery and Chemical Corp) then returned with two possible vehicles - the aluminum T113 and the steel T117 pilot vehicles to which the Army selected the aluminum version. This made it the first armored military vehicle to be constructed primarily of aluminum when steel was traditionally used. Its production model counterpart then became the M113 to which the model was standardized in the U.S. Army inventory in 1959 and replaced the stock of FMC M59 APCs then in service.

Production began in 1960 from FMC San Jose and these early-batch forms showcased a gasoline-fueled engine, a pintle-mounted 0.50 caliber M2 Browning heavy machine gun, and were (borderline) amphibious by design (propelled in the water by the motion of its tracks). The driver sat in a position at the front-left of the boxy hull superstructure with access possible through a roof hatch. His position also held four periscopes for viewing while "buttoned down" and also supported an infrared scope for low-light operations. Steering of the vehicle was through traditional levers. The glacis plate was mildly sloped for basic ballistics protection while all other sides of the hull were vertical in their angle. A hydraulically-powered ramp at the rear of the vehicle provided easy access to the passenger cabin and held a smaller access door within its frame. The vehicle commander was also granted use of a dedicated roof hatch at his position located behind the driver. He held access to five periscopes for increased situational awareness and a single 0.50 caliber M2 Browning heavy machine gun was a standard armament fitting at his hatch. Occupants could also engage in an firefight through a hatch over the passenger cabin. The internal configuration of the M113 was such that the powerpack was installed in the front-right of the hull along with the drive sprocket. There were five road wheels to a hull side in play with the track idler at rear. Beyond the two crew, eleven infantry could be carried in the rear cabin. Armor protection ranged from 12mm to 38mm. These vehicles reached operational-level readiness during 1962-1963.

During May of 1963, manufacture had shifted to a diesel-fueled variant (Detroit Diesel 6V53 V-6) known as the M113A1 which reduced the chance of fire if pierced in combat and offered increased operational road ranges as a result. The new engine was mated to an Allison TX-100 transmission system. This variant appeared in useful numbers from 1964 onwards. The developmental M113E1 brought about more changes to the base design including improved suspension and engine cooling and showcased features and qualities to become standard in future M113 marks.

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The next major improvement to the line did not occur until after the Vietnam War and this was in 1979 with the arrival of the M113A2 mark. The goal of engineers was to figure out ways to wring about performance gains from the existing vehicle - now nearly 20 years old. Externally, the M13A2 was largely indistinguishable from its A1 counterpart but was set apart by its list of gains: the suspension system was overhauled and included increased ground clearance while engine cooling was address again. There was support for optional externally-mounted fuel tanks which increased operational ranges and these were fitted to either side of the rear ramp door. A turbosupercharger was installed on the engine and an Allison X200-3 crossdrive transmission used. The changes added nearly 1.5 feet to the length to the M113 hull while an additional 900lbs of weight was gained.

Appearing in 1987 was a major revision of the M113 line through the new M113A3 model. This mark mated the Allison X200-4 transmission system to the all-new Detroit Diesel 6V-53T turbocharged diesel engine. The suspension system was addressed yet again and the optional external fuel tanks were fitted as standard. The internal tanks were given spall liners for improved protection for the crew and passengers. The steering levers were now replaced by a more conventional automobile-style wheel with foot pedals. TheP-900 armor kit was also supported which allowed for even greater protection against emerging battlefield threats of the period.

Production of the M113 originally ended in 1992 though additional orders allowed for further manufacture to continue. License local production was also undertaken in Italy by OTO Melara and by BMF of Belgium. Final U.S. Army purchases of M113s was in 2007 to which the service has maintained several thousand in its fleet, many of the A2 and A3 models and upgraded for better range, firepower, performance, and survivability (including use of applique armor kits). While no direct successor is in sight, several developments have emerged as possible replacements including the proposed Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV). The original proposal request emerged in early 2013.

As stated earlier, the chassis (and sometimes hull) of the M113 have gone on to serve in a myriad of other useful battlefield guises. There was the M58 "Wolf" smoke screen generator vehicle and the M106/M125 mortar carriers. The M150 was outfitted with the TOW Anti-Tank Guided Missile (ATGM) launcher and this was revised as the M901 ITV (Improved TOW Vehicle). The M113 forms the M163 20mm "Vulcan" air defense vehicle and the M48 "Chaparral" air defense missile carrier. The M548 is a cargo hauler, the M577 a dedicated command vehicle and the M579 a repair vehicle. The M806 was developed into an Armored Recovery Vehicle (ARV) with the M981 FIST-V (FIre Support Team - Vehicle) being based on the M901. The M132 line was a dedicated flame tank and the XM734 was a proposed Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV) form. Variants go far beyond this listing due to operator requirements, locally-produced versions, many locally modified forms. The ACV-300 is a Turkish version of the M113 while the Taiha is a Pakistani model. The Italian version is the VCC-1 and Norway uses the NM135/NM142 designations for the M113A1 and M113A2 respectively.

Despite its general external similarity to the M113, the subsequent (and dimensionally smaller) M114 vehicle was a new tracked system adopted by the U.S. Army and intended for the reconnaissance role. the M75 (1952) and M59 (1953) APCs also share the same shape. The M59 was the M75's replacement. The M59 was replaced by the M113.

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April 2022 - The United States has committed to sending some 200 M113 APCs to the nation of Ukraine as it continues to fight the Russian invasion from the East.

Power & Performance
Those special qualities that separate one land system design from another. Performance specifications presented assume optimal operating conditions for the M113A1 APC Tracked Armored Personnel Carrier.
1 x General Motors 6V53 6-cylinder diesel-fieled engine developing 212 horsepower and driving a conventional track-and-wheel arrangement.
Installed Power
38 mph
61 kph
Road Speed
298 miles
480 km
The physical qualities of the M113A1 APC Tracked Armored Personnel Carrier.
8.3 ft
2.52 meters
O/A Length
8.8 ft
2.69 meters
O/A Width
6.1 ft
1.85 meters
O/A Height
25,007 lb
11,343 kg | 12.5 tons
Armament & Ammunition
Available supported armament, ammunition, and special-mission equipment featured in the design of the M113 APC Tracked Armored Personnel Carrier.
1 x 12.7mm M2 Browning Heavy Machine Gun (HMG).
8 x Smoke Grenades.

7.62mm General Purpose Machine Gun (GPMG), 20mm or 25mm autocannon, TOW/TOW-2 Anti-Tank Guided Missiles (ATGMs) and various mortar calibers.
2,000 x 12.7mm ammunition.
8 x Smoke Grenade Dischargers.
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear Protection (CBRN) - YES - OPTIONAL.
Notable series variants as part of the M113 APC family line.
M113 - Initial production variant; Chrysler 75M gasoline engine of 209 horsepower; model of 1960.
M113A1 - Detroit Diesel diesel-fueled engine; improved performance; model of 1964.
M113A2 - Updated suspension and cooling package; model of 1979
M113A3 - Modernized M113; improved suspension, performance and powerpack; support for applique armor; software upgrades; model of 1987.
M58 Wolf - Smoke Generator Vehicle
M106 - 107mm Mortar Carrier
M125A1 - 81mm Mortar Carrier
M163 Vulcan - Air Defense Vehicle
M548 - Cargo Carrier
M667 Lance - Battlefield Missile Carrier
M730 Chaparral - Battlefield Missile Carrier
M548A1/A3 - Unarmored Cargo Carrier
M577A2/A3 - Command Post Vehicle
M901A1 ITV - Improved TOW Vehicle
M981 FIST-V - Fire Support Team Vehicle
M1059/A3 - Smoke Generator Vehicle
M1064/A3 - Mortar Carrier
M1068/A3 - Standard Integrated Command Post System Carrier
OPFOR Surrogate Vehicle (OSV) - OPposing FORces development
M113 ACAV ("Armored CAvalry Vehicle") - Additional armor protection; shielded machine gun stations.
NM135 - Norwegian Army Variant; 1 x 20mm cannon in one man turret; 1 x 7.62mm machine gun.
NM142 - Norwegian Army Variant; 2 x TOW anti-tank missiles.
SIDAM 25 - Italian Army Variant; 4 x 25mm SPAAG guns (M113 chassis).
ADATS - Canadian-produced Air Defense Anti-Tank System (M113 chassis).
M113 A/A - Egyptian Army anti-aircraft variant; 2 x 23mm cannons.
ADATS - Air Defense Vehicle of Canada
Global customers who have evaluated and/or operated the M113 APC. Nations are displayed by flag, each linked to their respective national land systems listing.

Total Production: 80,500 Units

Contractor(s): FMC Corporation / United Defense LP Ground Systems - USA
National flag of Afghanistan National flag of Albania National flag of Argentina National flag of Australia National flag of Bahrain National flag of Bangladesh National flag of Belgium National flag of Bolivia National flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina National flag of Brazil National flag of Canada National flag of Chile National flag of Denmark National flag of Ecuador National flag of Egypt National flag of Ethiopia National flag of France National flag of modern Germany National flag of East Germany National flag of Greece National flag of Iraq National flag of Iran National flag of Israel National flag of Italy National flag of Jordan National flag of Kuwait National flag of Lebanon National flag of Libya National flag of Lithuania National flag of Macedonia National flag of Morocco National flag of the Netherlands National flag of New Zealand National flag of Norway National flag of Pakistan National flag of Peru National flag of the Philippines National flag of Poland National flag of Portugal National flag of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia National flag of Singapore National flag of South Korea National flag of Spain National flag of Sudan National flag of Somalia National flag of Sweden National flag of Switzerland National flag of Taiwan National flag of Thailand National flag of Turkey National flag of Tunisia National flag of the United States National flag of Uruguay National flag of Vietnam National flag of Yemen

[ Afghanistan; Albania; Argentina; Australia; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belgium; Bolivia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Brazil; Cambodia; Canada; Chile; Columbia; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Denmark; East Germany; Ecuador; Egypt; Ethiopia; France; Germany; Greece; Guatemala; Iran; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kuwait; Lebanon; Libya; Lithuania; Macedonia; Morocco; Netherlands; New Zealand; Norway; Pakistan; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Saudi Arabia; Singapore; Somalia; South Korea; South Vietnam; Spain; Sudan; Sweden; Switzerland; Taiwan; Thailand; Tunisia; Turkey; United Nations; United States; Uruguay; Vietnam; Yemen ]
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Design Qualities
Some designs are single-minded in their approach while others offer a more versatile solution to battlefield requirements.
Some designs stand the test of time while others are doomed to never advance beyond the drawing board; let history be their judge.
Developments of similar form-and-function, or related, to the M113 APC Tracked Armored Personnel Carrier.
Going Further...
The M113 APC Tracked Armored Personnel Carrier appears in the following collections:
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