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240mm Caterpillar Mark IV


Self-Propelled Howitzer (SPH)


United States | 1920



"The 240mm Caterpillar Self-Propelled Gun concept never materialized for the United States Army before the end of World War 2."



Authored By: JR Potts, AUS 173d AB | Last Edited: 09/27/2018 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site; No A.I. was used in the generation of this content.
During World War 1, United States Army authorities came to the conclusion that towed artillery was consistent with their current battlefield doctrine. However, large howitzers and like-artillery systems required multiple "mover" vehicles (either tractors or large trucks) to transport and much time was needed by the operating crew for the preparation of such weapons, in a sense defeating much of its tactical value. Making the artillery system self-propelled was the primary solution as less crew and time would be needed to transport and set up a firing position for the gun. The Caterpillar Mk IV was such a machine, born as a single pilot vehicle designed to propel a large-caliber 240mm howitzer.

The 240mm, 9.5-inch M1918 Schneider howitzer of French origins was the largest-caliber field gun to be deployed by US Army field artillery in World War 1 and was used to great success. The gun began life as a towed artillery piece originally designed during World War 1 and since having been updated on many occasions in increase potency and keep the type modernized for current battlefield requirements. The 9.5-inch barrel fired a hefty 356-pound shell which was propelled by a 49-pound bag of TNT and could reach out to 14,000 yards - approximately 10 miles - when fired.

The M1918 gun was towed in separate major components by no fewer than six tractors and required a full 20-man crew to transport, setup and operate. In a combat situation, the crew would have to set up the gun system in the cover of darkness, which also required reconnaissance of the ground and much training as deployment of the six tractors and the many required hours needed to set up the gun in broad day light would have drawn much attention from enemy artillery. When the precise firing position was found, a seven-man lead crew was first on the scene to layout the emplacement pit using a surveyor's transit. The crew then dug a 7x6x3 foot pit with conventional picks and shovels over the course of three hours if the ground proved fair. An additional twelve hours and the balance of the 20-man crew was needed to complete setup of the gun.

Firstly, a metal base was dropped into the prepared pit with steel ramps placed along the sides of the pit to help distribute the weight of the system. Next came the tractor towing the aiming mounts followed by another tractor bringing the recoil mechanism and, finally, another transport hauling the 11,000 pound barrel. The guns wheels alone weighed up to 1,000lbs each. When completed, the entire gun system weighed an impressive 39,920lbs. As one can see, the massive effort made a self-propelled version very desirable.

The Caterpillar Mark IV, developed in 1920, did not make use of a "true" tank chassis but instead relied upon a tractor chassis - weighing some 31,580 pounds - with an 11,000lb barrel and applicable firing system added. The tractor was based on a French design produced by the St. Chamond Company. All told, the completed Caterpillar vehicle topped 71,500 pounds. A 150 horsepower motor powered a 400 volt, 70kW generator which, itself, powered the 70 horsepower electric motors required to move the track systems. A crane, connected to the back of the gunnery platform, assisted in raising each 356-pound shell from awaiting ammunition carts. This arm then swung the projectiles into place on the loading tray. The primary tractor could transport seven crew. Testing ensued at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds of Maryland in 1921.

As a mover, the tractor chassis proved underpowered with its engine/motor arrangement for a top speed of just 9 miles per hour was possible and this only in ideal conditions. A second tractor (sans the gun and mounting), known as the "Mark IV-A", was attached to the rear of the primary mover in an attempt to help increase speeds over open ground. While towing the vehicle itself would have been an option, it would defeat the purpose of its "self-propelled" nature. Thusly, the Mk IV concept was ultimately deemed inadequate and later scrapped from US Army requirements, this after six of the kind were completed.

The heavy-caliber self-propelled gun concept was tried once again during World War 2 when, in 1944, a 240mm howitzer was mounted onto a heavy tank T26E3 tracked chassis. An extra wheel bogie had to be fitted to each track side due to the excessive weight. This new variant became the "T92 Howitzer Motor Carriage" though the war was over by September of 1945. The T92 HMC was never used in combat and later scrapped - along with the dream of a US Army large-caliber self-propelled gun. Similar gun concepts within Germany and the Soviet Union also fell to naught during the war.

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Power & Performance
Those special qualities that separate one land system design from another. Performance specifications presented assume optimal operating conditions for the 240mm Caterpillar Mark IV Self-Propelled Howitzer (SPH).
1 x Motor developing 150 horsepower to 1 x Generator of 400 watts driving 2 x Motors developing 70 horsepower each.
Installed Power
9 mph
14 kph
Road Speed
35 miles
56 km
Range
Structure
The physical qualities of the 240mm Caterpillar Mark IV Self-Propelled Howitzer (SPH).
7
(MANNED)
Crew
29.9 ft
9.114 meters
O/A Length
8.5 ft
2.59 meters
O/A Width
13.0 ft
3.96 meters
O/A Height
71,198 lb
32,295 kg | 35.6 tons
Weight
Armament & Ammunition
Available supported armament, ammunition, and special-mission equipment featured in the design of the 240mm Caterpillar Mark IV Self-Propelled Howitzer (SPH).
1 x 240mm M1918 Schneider howitzer main gun
AMMUNITION:
Dependent upon ammunition carrier. 345lb HE shell with 40lb TNT charge.
SPECIAL EQUIPMENT:
Nightvision - NONE.
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear Protection (CBRN) - NONE.
Variants
Notable series variants as part of the 240mm Caterpillar Mark IV family line.
240mm Caterpillar Mark IV - Base Series Designation.
Mark IV-A - Designation marking gun-less tractor movers.
T92 Howitzer Motor Carriage - 1944 Variant mounting 240mm gun barrel and firing system t T26E3 tank chassis.
Operators
Global customers who have evaluated and/or operated the 240mm Caterpillar Mark IV. Nations are displayed by flag, each linked to their respective national land systems listing.

Total Production: 6 Units

Contractor(s): State Factories - USA
National flag of the United States

[ United States ]
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Image of the 240mm Caterpillar Mark IV
Image from the Public Domain.
2 / 2
Image of the 240mm Caterpillar Mark IV
Image from the Public Domain.

Design Qualities
Some designs are single-minded in their approach while others offer a more versatile solution to battlefield requirements.
FIRE SUPPORT / ASSAULT / BREACHING
Recognition
Some designs stand the test of time while others are doomed to never advance beyond the drawing board; let history be their judge.
Going Further...
The 240mm Caterpillar Mark IV Self-Propelled Howitzer (SPH) appears in the following collections:
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