×
Aircraft / Aviation Vehicles & Artillery Infantry Arms Warships & Submarines Military Pay Scale Military Ranks
HOME
ARMOR
MODERN ARMIES
COUNTRIES
MANUFACTURERS
COMPARE
BY CONFLICT
BY TYPE
BY DECADE
WORLD WAR 2

Type 91 105mm


Towed Light Towed Field Howitzer (1932)


Land Systems / Battlefield

1 / 2
The Type 91 105mm field howitzer with its original wooden spoked wheels
2 / 2
A later-model Type 91 field howitzer with the newer rubber-on-steel wheels

Jump-to: Specifications

The Type 91 105mm light field howtizer served the Imperial Japanese Army throughout the 1930s and 1940s.



Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 05/10/2017 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.
Advertisements
In an effort to modernize its fighting forces to keep pace with foreign powers, the Japanese were forced to rely on outside assistance to improve their engineering prowess and manufacturing know-how. This led to many indigenous weapons inspired from existing designs brought to the Japanese mainland from far-off places like Europe. Such was the influence on the Type 91, a 105mm towed howitzer weapon system that was a Japanese take on the French Model 1913 "Schneider" - already a proven veteran of World War 1 (1914-1918). The French guns were taken on by the Japanese for testing and eventually formed the basis for the local design.

The Type 91 was adopted to succeed the aged line of Type 38 150mm howitzers of same battlefield role. These guns held their own origins in the early 1900s and were themselves veterans of the Japanese war with Russia (the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905). As a howitzer piece, the weapons provided effective indirect fire against infantry forces and light armored vehicles, providing considerable High-Explosive (HE) lethality at range. By this time, the Type 38 series had seen its pinnacle and was quickly outpaced by emerging models seen elsewhere.
Advertisements
The Type 91 utilized a 105mm projectile weighing 35 pounds and loading was through an interrupted screw breech arrangement. The gun barrel was braced by an integral hydropneumatic recoil mechanism for repeat-fire accuracy and the component, as well as the barrel, sat atop a split trail, two-wheeled carriage with gun shield attached - the latter providing some local defense. The typical operating crew was six and the artillery piece could be moved by beast of burden or mover vehicle thanks to its two-wheeled arrangement. The crew could also relocate, or turn, the piece over short distances if necessary.

The gun tube's mounting hardware allowed for an elevation span of -5 to +45 degrees and 20-degrees left or right from centerline. A well-trained and disciplined gunnery crew could expect to make up to eight rounds-per-minute. Muzzle velocity of the exiting shells was 1,790 feet per second with maximum range reaching 11,800 yards depending on charge used. A panoramic optical set was used for ranging/sighting.

Design work on what would become the Type 91 began in 1927 and continued into the early 1930s. Production was assigned to the Osaka Arsenal which resulted in some 1,200 examples. 100 of these became a "motorized" form as steel, rubber-tired wheels replaced the earlier, original wooden-spoked design. The change was necessary to conform to the growing reliance on mechanized warfare but made the weapon system considerably heavier as a result.

The Type 91 went on to see extensive combat action in the period leading up to World War 2 and continued in use until the Japanese surrender of August 1945. Its first widespread use was witnessed during the Manchuria Campaign before it was pressed into action against the Soviets. The expanding Pacific Campaign ensured that the piece would also go on to see action against British, American and other Allied forces before the end. From then onwards, some stocks were featured fighting for both sides of the Chinese Civil War (1946-1950) before being given up for good some time later.

Specifications



Service Year
1932

Origin
Imperial Japan national flag graphic
Imperial Japan

Crew
6
CREWMEN
Production
1,100
UNITS


Osaka Arsenal - Imperial Japan
National flag of China National flag of modern Japan National flag of Taiwan China; Imperial Japan; Taiwan
(OPERATORS list includes past, present, and future operators when applicable)
Fire Support / Assault / Breaching
Support allied forces through direct / in-direct fire, assault forward positions, and / or breach fortified areas of the battlefield.


Length
9.0 ft
2.75 m
Weight
3,307 lb
1,500 kg
Tonnage
1.7 tons
LIGHT
(Showcased structural values pertain to the base Type 91 105mm production variant. Length typically includes main gun in forward position if applicable to the design)
Powerplant: None. This is a towed artillery piece.
Range
6.7 mi
(10.7 km)
(Showcased performance specifications pertain to the base Type 91 105mm production variant. Compare this entry against any other in our database)
1 x 105mm (4") barrel assembly


Supported Types




(Not all weapon types may be represented in the showcase above)
Dependent upon ammunition carrier. Ammunition types included High-Explosive, Armor-Piercing, shrapnel and chemical rounds.


Type 91 - Base Series Designation; early production forms fielded with wooden spoked wheels; later production forms fielded with steel wheels surrounded by pneumatic rubber tires with increased weight penalty.


Military lapel ribbon for the American Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for pioneering aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of the Bulge
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Kursk
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon representing modern aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur War
Military lapel ribbon for experimental military vehicles


Ribbon graphics not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns / operations.

Advertisements





Disclaimer | Privacy Policy | Cookies


2022 Military Pay Scale Army Ranks Navy Ranks Air Force Ranks Alphabet Code DoD Dictionary American War Deaths French Military Victories Vietnam War Casualties

The "Military Factory" name and MilitaryFactory.com logo are registered ® U.S. trademarks protected by all applicable domestic and international intellectual property laws. All written content, illustrations, and photography are unique to this website (unless where indicated) and not for reuse/reproduction in any form. Material presented throughout this website is for historical and entertainment value only and should not to be construed as usable for hardware restoration, maintenance, or general operation. We do not sell any of the items showcased on this site. Please direct all other inquiries to militaryfactory AT gmail.com.

Part of a network of sites that includes GlobalFirepower, a data-driven property used in ranking the top military powers of the world, WDMMA.org, the World Directory of Modern Military Aircraft, and SR71blackbird.org, detailing the history of the world's most iconic spyplane.


Facebook Logo YouTube Logo

www.MilitaryFactory.com • All Rights Reserved • Content ©2003-