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Type 90 75mm


Towed Field Gun


Imperial Japan | 1932



"Only 786 examples of the Type 90 75mm field gun were ultimately produced for the Imperial Japanese Army."



Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 02/24/2020 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site; No A.I. was used in the generation of this content.
The Type 90 was intended as a standardized 75mm field gun for the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) heading into World War 2 (1939-1945). It was adopted in 1930 and entered service in 1932 seeing some 786 units built in all. However, its numbers proved limited for the 75mm "Type 38" - the series the Type 90 was set to replace - continued in service until the Japanese surrender in 1945 due to the direction of the war, no longer in favor of the Japanese military. The Type 90 received its designation from the year of acceptance according to the Japanese calendar, this showing 2590 for the year 1930.

As with other artillery pieces of the period, the Type 90 exhibited two modes - travel and firing. Its tow carriage came into play for both as it was used to tow the weapon (via mover vehicle) or split as two "legs" and dug into the earth for firing. Transportation and in-the-field traversal adjustments were aided by way of the two-wheeled carriage using solid rubber tires. The firing crew resided behind a smallish armored shield for some protection against incoming fire and other battlefield dangers. A complete gunnery crew numbered six to eight personnel - from gunner to director, gun layer to ammunition handlers. The gun's action was manual while the breech was of a horizontal sliding block type. Recoil was contained through a hydropneumatic system and aided by a muzzle brake over the barrel. The gun mounting allowed for an elevation span of -8 to +43 degrees while traversal was limited to 25 degrees to either side - or else the entire gun carriage had to be turned by the crew. Travel weight was listed at 4,400lb while the system (in its firing form) displaced at 3,080lb.

The gun's ammunition consisted of a 14.5lb 75mm projectile. A trained gunnery crew could fire up to fifteen rounds in a 2 minute period for heavy sustained fire support. Each projectile exited the muzzle at a 2,240 feet per second velocity while maximum range was out to 16,360 yards. Sighting was achieved through a panoramic optical installation. The Type 90 was cleared to fire High-Explosive (HE), shrapnel (anti-personnel), Armor-Piercing (AP), smoke and illumination rounds as required - on par with other designs of the time.

Prior to the adoption of the Type 90, the Japanese Empire relied on several foreign types beginning with German Krupp-made guns. After World War 1 (1914-1918), these guns were no longer available from Germany and Japanese industry lacked the capabilities for design, development and mass production of an indigenous like-system. Artillery requirements were then fulfilled by the purchase of French-originated field guns before an indigenous design overtook them. The local design, influenced by the French Schneider Model 1927 itself, became the "Type 90" for the IJA.

On the whole, the Type 90 proved a capable battlefield system suitable for ranged warfare in the 1930s and 1940s. As such it was fielded during the Soviet-Japanese Border Wars as well as the Second Sino-Japanese War leading up to, and throughout, World War 2. It's HE shells proved potent against dug-in enemy infantry while AP shells proved proficient against enemy armor. Other shells played their part in offensive and defensive maneuvers of the IJA across the Pacific and Asia when in support. Its success as a tank-killing weapon went on to influence the main gun selected for the Type 3 "Chi-Nu" Medium Tank to counter the American M4 Sherman Medium Tank. However, the tank arrived in 1945 in just 144 examples and too late for combat service in World War 2.

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Power & Performance
Those special qualities that separate one land system design from another. Performance specifications presented assume optimal operating conditions for the Type 90 75mm Towed Field Gun.
None. This is a towed artillery piece.
Installed Power
9 miles
15 km
Range
Structure
The physical qualities of the Type 90 75mm Towed Field Gun.
6
(MANNED)
Crew
9.8 ft
3 meters
O/A Length
3,086 lb
1,400 kg | 1.5 tons
Weight
Armament & Ammunition
Available supported armament, ammunition, and special-mission equipment featured in the design of the Type 90 75mm Towed Field Gun.
1 x 75mm (2.95") gun tube.
AMMUNITION:
Dependent upon ammunition carrier. Ammunition types included High-Explosive, Armor-Piercing, shrapnel, smoke, illumination and incendiary.
SPECIAL EQUIPMENT:
Nightvision - NONE.
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear Protection (CBRN) - NONE.
Variants
Notable series variants as part of the Type 90 75mm family line.
Type 90 - Base Series Designation.
Type 3 - Chi-Nu tank gun based on the Type 90 design.
Operators
Global customers who have evaluated and/or operated the Type 90 75mm. Nations are displayed by flag, each linked to their respective national land systems listing.

Total Production: 786 Units

Contractor(s): State Factories - Imperial Japan
National flag of modern Japan

[ Imperial Japan ]
1 / 1
Image of the Type 90 75mm
Rear left side view of the Type 90 75mm field gun on a high speed transport carriage

Design Qualities
Some designs are single-minded in their approach while others offer a more versatile solution to battlefield requirements.
FIRE SUPPORT / ASSAULT / BREACHING
Recognition
Some designs stand the test of time while others are doomed to never advance beyond the drawing board; let history be their judge.
Going Further...
The Type 90 75mm Towed Field Gun appears in the following collections:
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