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M1 Pack Howitzer / M116


75mm Towed Artillery


United States | 1927



"The versatile and lightweight Pack 75mm Towed Howitzer proved a godsend for American and Allied units in World War 2."



Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 08/16/2018 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site; No A.I. was used in the generation of this content.
The M1A1 Pack Howitzer was the standard howitzer for American forces in World War 2. The Pack design actually traced its roots back to the howitzer development of World War One, standardized in the American Army post-war as the M1. The M1A1 of the Second World War featured a short barrel, could reach a sustained rate of fire of 3 to 6 rounds per minute with a capable crew, and had a range of roughly 9,610 yards (8,790 meters). The system was purposely engineered to be light, easily transportable and operated by a small crew (which worked well in the favor of light divisions such as airborne units as evident in the M8 variant of the Pack). The high explosive shell of the M1 Pack Howitzer weighed 6.3 kilograms. The weapon system could be used for suppression, assault, defense and limited anti-tank duty. Further developments enabled better cross-country mobility.

Pack howitzers garnered their 'Pack' designations by the idea that pack animals could tow the lightweight system (most common in World War One but not uncommon in World War Two for either side). The system was designed to be easily taken apart in multiple pieces (the M1 carriage could be taken down to a total of six parts while the gun system could be taken down to nine parts) for this very purpose. The M1A1 first utilized the aforementioned M1 Carriage, which featured wooden spoke wheels. Later versions implemented into the follow-up M8 Carriage utilized rubber treaded tires on metal wheels.

The M1A1 saw action in Arnhem with the British, being dropped by glider in Operation Market Garden. British troops also trained Yugoslavian partisans in the use of the weapon system (seeing some success in the mountain warfare role). The M1A1 saw action in the far east jungles of the Pacific Theater. The ability of the system to be able to be broken down made it most advantageous in mounting amphibious assaults needing artillery support immediately upon landing on the beaches.

M1A1 Pack Howitzers were also trialled on halftrack chassis and utilized to great effect in this role as well. Overall, the M1A1 became a classic piece of American artillery design. Portable, potent and very versatile, the system went on to see a great many years of frontline service as the standard light artillery weapon system.

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Power & Performance
Those special qualities that separate one land system design from another. Performance specifications presented assume optimal operating conditions for the M1 Pack Howitzer / M116 75mm Towed Artillery.
None. This is a towed artillery piece.
Installed Power
5 miles
9 km
Range
Structure
The physical qualities of the M1 Pack Howitzer / M116 75mm Towed Artillery.
6
(MANNED)
Crew
2,341 lb
1,062 kg | 1.2 tons
Weight
Armament & Ammunition
Available supported armament, ammunition, and special-mission equipment featured in the design of the M1 Pack Howitzer / M116 75mm Towed Artillery.
1 x 75mm gun barrel
AMMUNITION:
Dependent on ammunition carrier. HE, HEAT-T, Smoke, Chemical, Practice and Blank projectile types available.
SPECIAL EQUIPMENT:
Nightvision - NONE.
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear Protection (CBRN) - NONE.
Variants
Notable series variants as part of the M1 Pack Howitzer / M116 family line.
M1 - Base designation field model
M1A1 - World War 2 standard model
M2 - M1 variant modified for M8 Motor Gun Carriage chassis use.
M3 - Vehicle mounted variant
M8 - Airborne modified variant
M116 - Post-World War 2 Designation
M120 - Post-World War 2 Designation of ceremonial Pack guns.
Operators
Global customers who have evaluated and/or operated the M1 Pack Howitzer / M116. Nations are displayed by flag, each linked to their respective national land systems listing.

Total Production: 4,939 Units

Contractor(s): State Factories - USA
National flag of China National flag of France National flag of South Korea National flag of Taiwan National flag of Turkey National flag of the United Kingdom National flag of the United States National flag of Vietnam National flag of Yugoslavia

[ France; China; North Vietnam; Taiwan; South Korea; South Vietnam; Turkey; United Kingdom; United States; Vietnam; Yugoslavia ]
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Image of the M1 Pack Howitzer / M116
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Image of the M1 Pack Howitzer / M116
Image copyright www.MilitaryFactory.com; No Reproduction Permitted.

Design Qualities
Some designs are single-minded in their approach while others offer a more versatile solution to battlefield requirements.
FIRE SUPPORT / ASSAULT / BREACHING
Recognition
Some designs stand the test of time while others are doomed to never advance beyond the drawing board; let history be their judge.
Going Further...
The M1 Pack Howitzer / M116 75mm Towed Artillery appears in the following collections:
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